China's J-10 flight control system telex technology to break the monopoly of the United States, Russia and France

China's J-10 fighter performance.

If the economic sphere, "Science and technology are primary productive forces", then in the military field, "Science and Technology is the first combat." The growth of military power, backed not only economic, but also to master a series of cutting-edge, the core of military technology. The reason why a big country big country owes those who would otherwise remain hidden "power of the device," while the best interests of great powers and exclusive, but also led to the sensitive technology has been closely monopoly.

"Monopoly" is derived from Mencius "will seek the monopoly board to look around the net market benefit" phrase. However, military technology, "monopoly", both economic sense, more strategic considerations. Military technology as the high end of the field of industrial technology, is already one of the few areas of strength in Western countries. Therefore, the maintenance of the developing countries, particularly developing country emerging military technology "monopoly", the Western developed countries have a strategic consensus.

Sensitive technology to diamond in the rough

"World" magazine reporter / Zheng Wenhao

Monopoly is not just to prohibit the "export" or "transfer" the existence of such a simple form, the complexity of weapons systems to determine the monopoly of military technology is extremely complex. Military technology, through the weapons design, system development, production, manufacture of the whole process, but the shadow of a monopoly, but also with the process everywhere.

The highest form of monopoly

Many people may not think in terms of nuclear or conventional weapons, the "design" often means the highest form of monopoly.

Compared to conventional weapons, nuclear weapons (mainly thermonuclear weapons) design, is the planet's most mysterious things, nuclear power is even more tight-lipped about the "taboo." The role of principles to be carried by the miniaturization of warheads, nuclear weapons, internal design form the overwhelming majority of countries, remains a mystery.

Nuclear bomb is not nuclear material into the tin to simple yard. Design a nuclear bomb, requires a State has a solid theoretical nuclear physics research base, also with large-scale computing capabilities. Very expensive nuclear materials, nuclear test launching a campaign to costly, so it can not rely on general military-technical like trial and error. Before the formal nuclear test, we need as much as possible on paper to design a similar "product" of a nuclear bomb. Meanwhile, the power of nuclear bomb design also needs growing, the volume is getting smaller and smaller. This means that every nuclear test, nuclear weapons design methods are changing.

As the strategic nuclear deterrent, the major nuclear powers monopoly on nuclear weapons design has not eased. Some small and medium power bad state to "possession of nuclear weapons", I am afraid not with its own power has broken the "monopoly", but more in line with the political intentions of some big powers. India's nuclear tests, has publicly expressed its will manufacture 200,000 tons-class thermal nuclear weapons, but the international community generally skeptical of such claims, they think that India is the largest trial of an enhanced fission device. After all, not build a nuclear bomb by mouth.

If the design of nuclear weapons around the state monopoly status, then the design of conventional weapons, especially the top-level design, is determining the "monopoly" can bring much profit.

Top-level design is a strategic objective and its time and space on the display of form and design implementations. Over the years, the United States remained the world's No. 1 arms exports, the outside world are concerned about the development of US-made weapons in the production of advanced technology, but ignores the fact that the United States firmly in the top-level design holds the "monopoly" status .

Rehabilitation of military revolution, the U.S. military theoretical innovation has been in the "forefront", while they frequently provide a realistic operational military requirements drive. Promotion in these two areas, the U.S. weapons to always be in the "innovation" on attracting other countries, but also through the integration of information technology to achieve the maximum exclusion.

For example, the United States of F-35 project, shows the United States on the future development of air combat and air force strategic judgments. The project creatively put forward the "low cost", "highly lethal" "high-viability" and "high support" of the design concept, and by different variants to meet the needs of different armed services, and then realize all the Western allies of existing aircraft replacement. The F-35 project's other members, but basically there is no top-level strategic project design capabilities, they determine the future air combat battlefield, can only receive from the U.S. point of view.

In essence, the monopoly of top-level design is a kind of "prediction" of the monopoly. Forecast the demand for war on weapons, which most countries in the world is unthinkable.

Although the F-35 is now the price and performance is increasingly challenged, and some participating countries have also threatened to not buy F-35, but the clearance of the project is likely to be "near misses", the top reason is that the design of the United States monopoly.

Lies in the hands of the platform a few countries

Monopoly of weapons design is important, but also need to develop capacity and systems to match. If there is no capacity to design capacity development as support, but will be restricted.

Large equipment manufacturing, precision processing technology, materials technology, is the weapon system platform (body) development of key areas. From the computer "virtual" platform out into entities, not the actual manufacturing is impossible. The manufacture of light weapons, better said, if related to a large platform equipment, heavy equipment manufacturing technology is essential.

For example, in order to improve the overall performance of aviation products, large forging share in the aviation forging and single piece size is growing. For aircraft main load-bearing frame, beams and so the whole component, the United States, Russia, France and other major countries have adopted major air 4.5 to 75 thousand tons of large forging press for processing, while China is building up to the maximum pressure of large forging press 80,000 tons, is the world's largest forging press. This ultra-heavy manufacturing equipment itself is a complex system to master the technology only in the hands of a handful of countries.

Although many countries are very concerned about space, strategic reconnaissance capability, but the optical components of optical imaging satellites is a major problem. In particular the emerging off-axis three-mirror optical system, reduce the size of satellite weight, it is also a long focal length, large field, the advantages of high resolution, so it has become a new generation of precision processing technology of optical imaging reconnaissance satellites core. In the past, this technology has been monopolized by the United States and France, until 2009, China 长春光机所 was a breakthrough.

Military equipment, new materials are used in various types of high-performance weapons and equipment supporting the "skeleton", these materials demands light, just, strong. Light is the material ability to resist gravity larger; just that the material resistance to deformation under loading capacity should be large; strong, that is, material resistance to failure under loading capacity larger. In addition, if applied to some special parts of weapons systems, such as ballistic missile warhead nose cone, fighter Smart Skin, materials also have the sensation of information. Therefore, high strength steel used in weapons systems, high-performance ceramics, composites, semiconductor materials, functional materials, it is the focus of national technical monopolies.

A large number of used satellites, spacecraft, large aircraft and airframe manufacturing of high performance fighter PAN based carbon fiber composite material as an example. Japan of the global total production capacity of 39%, the U.S. accounted for 35% of the total output of the two countries will account for 74% of global production. The core technology is the United States Su Taike major companies, Hekesaier company and Japan's Toray Carbon Fibers hands.

Microelectronics semiconductor materials directly affect the level of the military, without which it would not be any phased array radar, electronic countermeasures. The production of high-quality large-diameter (6 to 8 inches) GaAs crystal technology, only Germany before FCM Corporation, Japan's Sumitomo Corporation to master. By 2006, China has successfully drawn out of the country's first 8-inch diameter GaAs single crystal.

The largest gap between the monopoly power technology

Mechanization of modern military combat platforms with plenty of power system is not inconceivable. From land to ocean, from the sky to outer space, with strong power systems, advanced weapons systems to show its mettle on the battlefield. Therefore, the monopoly of power system development technology, the most likely to ensure its superiority in the military field.

Modern heavy main battle tanks weigh 70 tons, have to battle in a variety of extreme conditions to keep the motor speed of tens of kilometers per hour. While it can produce no less than 10 main battle tanks to a country, but to provide the most modern diesel-powered tank top countries, but only the United States, Germany, Russia and other countries. Germany in particular MTU's 880 series diesel engine, equipped not only in Germany itself the "Leopard 2" main battle tank, also export and equipment to the Israeli "Merkava" South Korea's K-1 and India's "Arjun" main battle tanks.

Equipment in the Navy, the medium and large ships to use the nuclear power reactor technology, only four countries were the United States, Russia and France in the hands. For nuclear power given the ship a long time on the water (or water) activities, thereby significantly enhancing the ship's maneuverability and maintain a strategic presence in the distant sea deterrent, so the major powers to ensure the absolute monopoly of nuclear power reactor technology . The conventional power system is mainly by the U.S. warship General Electric, Rolls - Royce, MTU of Germany and other monopoly companies.

Modern gas turbines used in the majority of vessels are derived from aviation engines. Therefore, the monopoly of military ships engines for military aircraft engines in the field can be dominant. Currently the United States military aircraft engine major General Electric, Pratt - Whitney and British Rolls - Royce hands. In particular, for the fourth generation of supersonic aircraft cruising in the high thrust-weight ratio engines, the United States came out top. Although Russia has flown a fifth-generation fighter plane, its engine is still a level of three generations, it can develop a real fourth-generation fighter, the first breakthrough in the United States depends on whether the monopoly of the advanced engine technology. In addition, a large military transport aircraft of the air engine technology, also lies in the hands of the United States.

In addition to conventional land, sea and equipment, various types of missiles and space vehicles will need high-thrust rocket engines and hypersonic trans-atmospheric flight for the power plant. As the rocket engine is closely related with the long-range missiles, have not only developed countries in a monopoly of the high-thrust rocket engine technology, but also strictly limit the sale of a treaty. United States, Russia, France, China has developed military high-thrust rocket engine technology. India, Iran is also developing intercontinental missiles to target efforts, but is generally believed that external technical assistance unless otherwise difficult to achieve significant breakthroughs in the near future.

Rocket engine in the military field, American companies will undoubtedly occupy a technical high ground. Alliant Tech Systems ATK 85% of the U.S. monopoly of the solid rocket motor market (including the world's most advanced submarine-launched Trident-D5 missile rocket motor); liquid rocket engines were common - benefits Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne to master, the world's largest hydrogen and oxygen rocket engine thrust RS-68, is the company's products.

Engine is known as the crown of industrial technology, research and development because it is almost need the support of the whole industrial system. Therefore, the monopoly of the most centralized power system, the largest gap technology.

Control system is highly confidential

With the weapons intelligence, precise development, an important part of weapons systems there, this is the control system.

Ballistic missiles can accurately hit targets thousands of miles across, tanks can be bumpy side road on the side of the attack moving enemy targets, fighters can make a compelling action in the air, while the enemy attack, aircraft carrier battle groups to the thousands of square kilometers one offensive and the sea are inseparable from the control system.

Ballistic missiles, high-precision inertial guidance system technology has been tightly controlled by the hands of five nuclear powers. While some countries have ballistic missiles, inertial guidance technology, but basically rely on imports, and a lot of accuracy difference. Even the imported technology is sneaky, because the inertial guidance technology is simply being out on the embargo list.

China, "Jian Shi," fighters use the three-axis four-redundant digital flight control system telex is a typical control system used in aircraft, its role is to ensure that when the pilot pulled the stick to maintain stable flight. China successfully developed three generations of aircraft flight control system, telex, it should be said to break the United States, Russia, France and the technological monopoly, but it's only a first step in long journey.

Fourth-generation fighter control system more than a simple flight control, but "flying, fire, force" integration of control systems. Collins and even the United States in the development of more intelligent flight control system, even if the plane was blown up a wing, can fly back! The pilot of a responsive only within about 200 milliseconds to respond, but at this time, the more intelligent flight control system had to make adjustments 10 times to avoid the aircraft crashed.

"Aegis" of shipboard air defense system further illustrated the importance of the control system. Generally only notice the outside world, "Aegis" external visible Phased array radar, in fact, "Aegis" air defense system combines phased array radar, air radar, on the Sea Surface Targets, fire control radar, sonar, electronic support systems, satellite navigation, data link and a variety of information, it is a highly automated command and control systems. "Aegis" system has now become the U.S. Navy air defense, missile defense core, has become the monopoly of modern technology as a symbol of the Navy.

From the current public data, to develop fighter planes, tanks, warships, missiles, countries with control systems have the capability to develop. However, the information in the future battlefield weapons and equipment of large complex control systems in the field, no doubt living in the United States "arbitrary" status. The core of the control system, software system, even as a top-secret hidden in the background. Both fourth-generation fighter control system can be applied to theater missile defense or the latest "Aegis" baseline -7 systems are large information engineering, software development, including not only the business community and even universities and other research institutions. The United States can publicly display F-22 fighters, and even lets people see the "Aegis" combat command center, but will open up the software's source code? The game is. Even Microsoft's windows operating system source code is top secret, not to mention country weapon.

"Flexible" manufacturing

If development is to make a weapon system from scratch, then the manufacturer is to make weapons to achieve mass production, and performance, quality can meet the needs of military operations. One able to cope with the challenges of the future battlefield state, must establish the ability to automation technology, information technology and precision processing technology and into one of the "soft" advanced weapons manufacturing system.

In the movie "Iron Man", the actor Tony Stark in his luxury villa in the manufacture of steel jersey, used is a tiny flexible manufacturing system, which consists of a number of numerical control equipment, materials, transport storage devices and computer virtual control system components can be quickly modified in accordance with the requirements of Stark manufacturing materials and processes, while fully automated manufacturing systems to ensure the maximum extent and accuracy of manufacturing processes.

Although this is science fiction movie, but "flexible" manufacturing technology of advanced weapons and military enterprises in the United States has been widely used. Particularly in need high precision, high technology military aviation, aerospace, marine areas. In 2004 the United States, "Defense Today" website has reported that from 2007 to 2027, Lockheed Martin's goal is to mass production when the annual production of 240 F-35 fighter jets, the equivalent of one day does not include the production of the weekend Speed! Although this report there is an element of exaggeration, but it shows that the U.S. military giant, a large number of applications has been "flexible" manufacturing technology, it is impossible to make such a terrible speed.

Establishment of a "soft" advanced weapons manufacturing system, not only to break the Western countries in advanced machine tools and other automated manufacturing equipment on the monopoly, but also in artificial intelligence, intelligent sensor technology breakthrough. No advanced manufacturing system, even in the single technically advanced weapons systems production speed, technology will become a fatal drag the "shortcomings."

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