In early June, Chen Bingde, chief of staff in the "Hong Kong Commercial Daily" interview, said: "The aircraft carrier has been under construction, but has not completed! Such as construction finished to say." This is by far the first foreign army generals acknowledge that China is construction of aircraft carriers.
Aircraft manufacturing to China is of great significance. Its construction and service not only adds a large warship, which will enable the country to a high degree of sea power into the system to gather together, to make this large-scale integrated maritime battle group can greatly COSCO out into the sea before. Aircraft carrier battle groups will revolutionize the traditional maritime combat, so the Navy chain of command, organizational system, and other aspects of military theory, a qualitative change.
Today's world, there are nine countries have aircraft carriers, aircraft types are not the same - a large aircraft carrier, a small aircraft carrier, a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, there are conventionally powered aircraft carrier. China will choose what kind of aircraft carrier construction?
China as a maritime power, the more need for medium-sized aircraft carrier
Since the inception of the aircraft carrier, the carrier state has never stopped the construction of this debate: whether it is good to build a large aircraft carrier, or more favorable to the development of small aircraft carrier?
This issue depends on a country's economic, scientific and technological strength, but also aircraft manufacturer with the national strategy, political factors are closely related. Careful analysis, it first depends on a country's military strategy and maritime strategy. For example, during the Cold War, the United States to pursue global ocean offensive strategy, a comprehensive world hegemony with the Soviet Union, the implementation of extensive marine forward deployment, rely mainly on the strong sea power and advanced weaponry, especially the number of aircraft carrier battle groups and a large number of overseas base troops for deterrence, strategic rivals are able to keep their challenge, and ultimately to stop the war, win the war.
After the end of the Cold War, the United States from the past to deter the Soviet Union, mainly to prevent or all-out war to win, to "stable world order," focusing on "attack from the sea" strategy, seeking to win his country's coastal waters high-tech war. Since then, U.S. military strategy and naval strategy and adjusted several times, but to dominate the world, the real world hegemony, but remains unchanged. In order to effectively cope with an increasingly diverse and difficult to determine the opponent for a substantial reduction in the status of overseas bases, the White House and the Pentagon insisted that: to maintain and achieve the "forward presence" is the core of relying on large aircraft carriers, large amphibious battle group, ballistic missile submarines, attack submarines, a new generation of LCS ships.
As in many small countries, its size and the number of ships the Navy is very limited, strategic needs is simply not much considering the development of medium-sized ships, which no development of natural and medium-sized aircraft carrier. Singapore as Southeast Asia, the land area of only 699 square kilometers, a coastline of only 193 km, the Navy has meant thousands of people. It combined large and small naval vessels, also about 60, the total tonnage of ships of 7 million tons, less than the United States serving the "Nimitz" class aircraft carrier loaded with a large displacement. Such an action only in the coastal waters of sea power, has no use and medium-sized aircraft carriers, and even small aircraft carriers it is difficult to have its uses.
Second, choose a large or small aircraft carrier, depending on the strength of a country's overall strength and how much military spending, military spending, especially the size of the Navy. The fact that the modern medium-sized aircraft carrier is a veritable "swallowing gold beast", regardless of their pre-research, design, or construction as well as aftercare, and the final scrap processing, the required expenses are astronomical.
The United States serving the "Nimitz" class the last two aircraft carriers, for example, section 9 of the class, "Ronald Reagan" the construction of nuclear-powered aircraft carrier costs about $ 4.5 billion, and the first 10 "Bush" was then rose to 6.2 billion dollars. New generation of "Ford" class aircraft carrier construction budget of more than $ 10.5 billion. The "Reagan" aircraft carrier, for example, to remove the ship's construction costs, the ship's aircraft carrier cost is not a small expenditure. Ship carrying more than 40 aircraft F/A-18C/E/F aircraft carrier, the total cost of about 40 billion to $ 4.5 billion (2010 prices); five E-2C early warning aircraft, the total cost of 400 million to $ 500 million; 5 E/A-18G "Growler" electronic warfare aircraft, the total cost of over $ 500 million; 11 MH-60R helicopter, the total cost of 800 million $ 900 million. Rough doing, the entire aircraft carrier-based aircraft carrier itself is to exceed the total cost of the construction costs. If the formation is coupled with the ship's cost, the full cost of the entire aircraft carrier battle groups in the 200 billion U.S. dollars. By Lifetime 5 to 8 times to calculate the aircraft carrier "life" of the total cost will exceed $ 100 billion. Small countries can not afford such a high carrier spending.
Third, the carrier also depends on the size of countries, the army and the navy's preference for high-level leaders and determination. In May 1949, the fanatical support of the United States when he was Secretary of Defense bomber Johnson, resolutely decided to stop the construction started only five days of "America" was a large aircraft carrier, save the funds for the purchase of B-36 heavy bombers. A group of generals publicly criticized the Navy's defense, but still did not stop living distressed carrier. Soviet Union, Khrushchev strongly opposed the construction of aircraft carriers, and strongly advocated the development of the strategic rocket forces, that the nuclear aircraft carrier is "live targets at sea", resulting in the development process behind the Soviet aircraft carrier 20 years, until December 1967, "Moscow" No. only joined the Soviet Navy helicopter carrier serving.
In addition, it is a country with a suitable carrier Zhubo ports, bases, and the activity area of the hydro-geological conditions have a great relationship.
Based on the above demands, we can see: China, as a maritime power, the more need for medium-sized aircraft carrier. This is because in recent years, China's defense spending has increased and as the overall national strength significantly increased; with our national interests and the maritime interests continue to expand, more than 90% of China's import and export trade, to rely on maritime transport; especially China not return to Taiwan, China "the occupation of reefs, the waters were divided, exploitation of resources," the situation remains very serious. Therefore, China's development of aircraft carriers, no need to hover in a small tonnage, we are likely to first learn from experience in the construction of medium-sized aircraft carrier, the time is ripe, and then map a larger development.
To fill gaps in the carrier on the basis of China may gradually develop two more aircraft carriers as well as
How much to build aircraft carriers to meet their own needs, to the national economy without heavy burden? This is a developing country must consider the carrier's problems. In the world today nine countries have aircraft carriers, in addition to the United States has 11 large aircraft carriers, the only Italian operator has two small aircraft carrier force, other countries have only one active-duty aircraft carrier.
These countries do not need two more aircraft carriers do? The answer is no. If the carrier in accordance with the normal operations, training, maintenance and repair of the law, generally at least three more aircraft carriers. Specifically, that a patrol at sea, as a duty tasks, and the other one at sea training, as well as a maintenance in the dock. The United States in the direction of the Pacific and Atlantic Zhubo, deploy six and five aircraft carriers, has been able to respond to these two directions of ocean affairs. The basic activities of the Italian Navy in the Mediterranean Sea, so it's two aircraft carriers - "Garibaldi" and "Ghafoor" was fully able to meet the needs of its maritime operations.
As for other countries, such as the Russian Navy is now only one aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" was, according to its four fleets at sea action requirements, in fact, is far unable to meet the need. Even if the only response to Russia's most important direction of the North and the Pacific, a carrier can become stretched Moreover, the carrier has service for 20 years, many design concepts and construction techniques are outdated, difficult to meet the needs of future naval warfare. To this end, in recent years, the Russian government and military leaders repeatedly made to the design and construction of six full load displacement of 50,000 tons to 6 tons of nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, respectively, the Northern Fleet in the Pacific and the deployment of three. Indian Navy to enter the new century, has been committed to the implementation of three more aircraft's development strategy, although now only one aircraft carrier in India, "virrat" number, but India is self-built aircraft carrier 'Vikrant' number (formerly known as "Blue Sky" Guardian of the number), and is Russia's conversion, "Vic Rama Tia" aircraft carrier (formerly the Russian "Admiral Gorshkov" number). British Navy has proposed to build two "Queen Elizabeth" class large aircraft carrier; France also decided to "Charles de Gaulle" aircraft carrier, based on the medium, then large-scale construction PA-2 aircraft.
Thus, the construction and service for more than two or two medium-sized aircraft carrier, is or will be a world power or a regional power of choice. Therefore, as one of five permanent members of the United Nations in China's economic aggregate now ranks second in the world, responsible for the world and the need for unification of the motherland, for the maintenance of marine interests and the needs of naval operations at sea, we earlier to fill the gaps, based on the aircraft carrier, will sum up experience, overcome weaknesses, step by step, may gradually develop two more aircraft carriers as well.
With the Chinese people's wisdom, our future is bound to design and build a completely independent intellectual property rights, "the sea giant."
The idea is the carrier's "soul." U.S. Navy active duty 10 "Nimitz" class carriers, basically there is a radar cross section larger defects; Although the level last one, "Bush" in the stealth design has been greatly improved - ship Bridge size significantly reduced, smooth, clean appearance, the ship uses a lot of stealth coating, which makes the ship's stealth greatly improved. However, due to the inherent structural defects, "Bush" aircraft improvements can only be regarded as "chipping away" of the limited improvement of its stealth nature of the problem of poor, can not be fundamentally resolved.
To compensate for the lack of active aircraft carrier, America's new generation of "Ford" class aircraft carrier for a new design: the superstructure to integrated design, bridge volume was significantly reduced, and later moved to the starboard rear; flight deck and hangar also redesigned and adjustment; configure the new concept of ship-based weapons, and the use of stealth coatings and materials.
U.S. aircraft carrier designs, the British "Queen Elizabeth" class aircraft carrier is using another new innovative design, the carrier uses a "two-island" type design, the two ships in the starboard side of the island each perform their own independent post, the former for use in navigation control, the latter control the main carrier-based aircraft taking off and landing. "Double Island" design greatly enhance the aircraft's anti-strike capability, and reduce the carrier aircraft taking off and landing during air disturbance, opened up a brand new large aircraft design ideas.
Aircraft manufacturing technology to a country's technological strength is also a major test. Today, many countries have the world's large ships, advanced manufacturing technology and facilities, but it does not mean that they mastered the manufacture of aircraft carrier technology. Aircraft carrier in the entire construction process to go through a lot of procedure. According to the U.S. Navy engineering specifications, usually when the U.S. aircraft carrier to go through the hull construction stakeout, hull mechanical processing, the hull assembly, equipment installation, etc. 12 "sophisticated" process. Which the carrier's hull lofting the most critical, it needs large-scale standardized testing pool, wind tunnel and high-speed computers as the basis, the world's only less than 10 companies have the ability to complete these tasks.
Aircraft design and manufacturing is an extremely complex systems engineering, the construction of China's aircraft carrier, the need in his country on the old aircraft carrier hull conversion and installation of new equipment and try a new technology, the construction of trial and error experience, this will take time . But the Chinese people's wisdom can not be discounted, our future is bound to design and build a completely independent intellectual property rights, "the sea giant."
Our ability to develop and manufacture world-class aircraft carrier
Carrier-based aircraft is the aircraft carrier "rule the roost in this", its performance determines the aircraft's combat capability. In recent years, the use of high-tech aircraft carrier-based aircraft have made more simplified model, the performance is more prominent, combat radius is greater. The United States has for its future, "Ford" class tailored to the fifth-generation aircraft carrier attack aircraft - F-35C. This fifth-generation fighter with supersonic cruise, good mobility, payload large, multi-purpose, etc., can reduce the types of aircraft carrier equipped with the full realization "of a machine-based" requirements. To further meet the needs of its amphibious assault ship, U.S. Navy and Marine Corps have joined forces to develop the F-35B V / STOL attack fighter type.
However, the gap between the technical level, most other countries aircraft carriers, will continue to target the fourth-generation or fourth generation and a half to design. India in the design, development of future aircraft carriers when they firmly grasp the general principles of three aircraft carriers, insist on developing for the future aircraft carrier deck Ski Jump MiG-29K carrier-based aircraft. The new MiG-29K carrier-based aircraft in the air to retain a strong operational capability at the same time, focus on improving the ability of the ground attack, so the weapons carried by aircraft are also more diverse. In addition, the aircraft's fire control systems are compatible with Western production of air-weapons, so that the tasks performed by the machine more diverse.
Carrier-based unmanned aerial vehicle with a small size, light weight, low cost, to cost-effective, to avoid casualties, etc., is becoming the main force of the future aircraft carriers aircraft. February 2011, U.S. carrier-based unmanned X-47B made its first flight test. This marks the official unmanned aircraft on the ship not far off. This UAV put into service by no means simply the U.S. aircraft carriers filled the gap models, more importantly, it will have the potential to revolutionize the future of sea-air combat mode.
It can be said carrier-based aircraft carrier determines the level of performance the level of combat effectiveness. Experience from developed countries in the world to see, carrier-based aircraft manufacturing technology and its difficult to achieve major breakthroughs in the short term, so the vast majority of countries are used to buy aircraft carriers or the introduction of means. In the digestion and absorption of foreign advanced technology, carrier-based aircraft, based on our ability to develop and manufacture world-class aircraft carrier.
I first aircraft carrier takeoff and landing approach, I am afraid that with Russia, "Admiral Kuznetsov" was very similar
In essence, the aircraft carrier is a large floating airport. Frequently deployed carrier-based confidential, recycling, this is important work on the aircraft carrier one of the elements.
Advanced and reliable carrier-based aircraft takeoff and landing aircraft technology is not only an important indicator of ability, but also the carrier's ability to quickly form a key element of combat. In all fairness, the world's countries have aircraft carriers, the real take-off aircraft carrier catapult technology to master, only an American, serving 11 U.S. aircraft carrier type used in all C13-2 steam catapults, France "de Gaulle" was also used in nuclear-powered aircraft carrier purchased from American Type C13-3 steam catapult. In addition, six aircraft carriers with the country, almost without exception, the Ski Jump off, that is without the need for steam catapult to the aircraft carrier to exert force, and cavort with the slide to make it jump off the deck.
Although the United States and other countries in the carrier have been technically pull off a great distance, but "Uncle Sam" does not meet the still more advanced efforts to develop the electromagnetic catapult, a breakthrough has been achieved, in 2015 is expected to serve a new generation of "Ford" class aircraft carrier use.
Compared with steam catapults, electromagnetic catapults the weight and size will be reduced by half or so, human can also be reduced by 30%, while its acceleration performance is based on the weight of carrier aircraft changes, both relatively heavy aircraft carrier catapult can also be no ejection of small and light aircraft carrier. Not only that, the new electromagnetic catapult repair time is short, low-cost, high efficiency, which will greatly enhance the future aircraft carrier-based aircraft and combat capability of the dispatch rate.
Carrier aircraft took off to return to executing the mission mothership, which need to use carrier-based aircraft landing technology block. Block is directly related to the aircraft carrier landing technology and recycling to protect the aircraft landed safety. According to statistics, the carrier 60% to 70% of the accidents occurred in the landing. Therefore, the block landing technology, countries attach great importance to the Navy, lots of manpower and material resources are developed. For example, the United Kingdom for the future of the new carrier-based aircraft landing technology will continue to carry out new exploration, they use the F-35B short takeoff and attack aircraft using the vertical landing mode, the machine can use vectored thrust aircraft approach the speed of slow and retain the same wing lift.
Given the characteristics of the aircraft carrier hull, the future of China's first aircraft carriers to take off and landing approach, I am afraid that with Russia, "Admiral Kuznetsov" was very similar. However, this take-off and landing more old-fashioned way, after all, take-off turnout will be greatly affected, thus affecting the operational effectiveness, so the long-term point of view, optimistic about the future of China's aircraft carrier steam catapults and electromagnetic catapults.
Choose medium-sized nuclear-powered warships in China, is a worthwhile attempt
Power system is a carrier of the "heart", it relates to the aircraft carrier sailing in the waters of COSCO speed, acceleration and endurance of the aircraft's combat capability at sea will have a direct and significant impact. Countries in the world of science and technology at different levels, ranging from the amount of financial resources, operational requirements vary, so the aircraft's power system requirements are not the same. However, over the years the Navy has not relax countries of advanced power technology research and development, trying to speed up their pace of replacement aircraft power systems.
Since World War II, the U.S. aircraft carrier on rotation of the power system change significantly faster. From the "Foley Lancaster" class and "Kitty Hawk" on the steam turbine-class aircraft carrier, to the "Enterprise" aircraft carrier on the A2W-type pressurized water reactor, and then "Nimitz" class-type pressurized water on the A4W/AIG heap. U.S. active nuclear-powered aircraft carrier have been achieved, and its battery life is becoming increasingly strong performance is also getting better and better. However, the U.S. Navy was not satisfied, but also for the new generation of "Ford" class aircraft carrier design and construction of a newer A5W-type pressurized water reactor. This nuclear power plant using 13,800 volt power distribution system, electricity is generated by active-duty aircraft power distribution system 3 times. In the "Ford" aircraft carrier during the 50-year life-cycle, A5W-type pressurized water reactors do not have to replace the core. The new nuclear technology, greatly extending the power life of the system, so that the unit price has become relatively inexpensive. In addition, the U.S. nuclear-powered aircraft carrier will be the future of the progressive realization of all-electric technology, in addition to long-life nuclear reactor, there are high-power conversion and power conditioning systems for electric drive, electric catapult, launching electromagnetic rail guns, laser weapons, particle beam and other new-concept weapons.
Another typical use of power technology in France over the years has been focusing on the French aircraft carrier technology for improvement and development, but has not formed a set of characteristics for the French aircraft carrier force and mature technology. The power plant is always ups and downs on the way to choose, from the initial conventional to nuclear power, eventually return to normal power. French Navy in 1955 to start construction of the "Clemenceau" aircraft carrier, using the steam turbine power plant for two of its sister ship, "Foch" was the power plant are also identical. 1999 "Charles de Gaulle" nuclear-powered aircraft carrier trials, the ship did not expect frequent failures of nuclear power plants: in 2000 two K-15 ship-based nuclear reactors (generating capacity of over 20,000 kW), because the cooling system with no line any contact, but can not be implemented cooling; 2009, the aircraft cabin and the driver appeared severe shock, the two turbines and the axis connecting the parts failed. In addition, the carrier also occurred on the rudder tremor, noise is not complete, nuclear reactor pressure shell cracks, and other outstanding issues related to power plant.
In France, the future PA-2 aircraft power plant of choice, fear of the French decision not to use PA-2 aircraft carrier "Charles de Gaulle" aircraft carrier nuclear power plant modifications, and determined to re-enable conventional power plants - gas turbines. There are several reasons: First, spend huge sums of money in France, with ten years time to develop nuclear-powered aircraft carrier power plant problems abound. France has not recognized K-15-type nuclear reactors in the design and manufacturing principles have major mistakes, but the fact that, in addition to the United States, other countries to make large-scale nuclear power plants on ships is still a considerable practical difficulty. Second, nuclear power plants, though they have to ensure that ships sailing for a long time to reduce the complex mechanical equipment and transmission equipment, saving a lot of space, etc., but its protection is also a huge trouble, reported that "Charles de Gaulle" aircraft carrier nuclear radiation poisoning. Third, the use of French nuclear-powered aircraft carrier does not achieve the speed increase, but there is only speed lags behind the phenomenon of its frigates. It is said that the use of nuclear power, "de Gaulle" aircraft carrier's top speed is only 27, while the French Navy, original equipment, "Foch" and "Clemenceau" conventionally powered aircraft carrier number two is the maximum speed reached 32 knots, and its main frigate in the fleet only "Cassar" class air defense destroyers and "George Legacy" class destroyers have also reached the maximum speed of 30 knots, which led to the emergence of aircraft carrier battle groups in the main ship and the ship is not matching between phenomenon. The maturity of the British experience in the field of gas turbine obtained French recognition, so the future of the PA-2 French carrier will use gas turbines.
For many of our power plant operations platform, is a bottleneck restricting combat. The development of our country's future aircraft carriers still face this problem, we can only learn from the first power and the use of sophisticated technologies and devices, and then development, development of other power technology, especially nuclear technology. In the long run, oil and gas resources for a need for more and more imports from foreign countries, choose medium-sized nuclear-powered warship, is a worthwhile attempt.
Navy has successfully completed a large surface ships and submarines, troops of the matching of new work
On an aircraft carrier, aircraft carrier-based aircraft captain and the pilot is undeniable. If you carefully study the growth of world aircraft carrier captain course, you will find that the aircraft carrier ship captain is not only a large sailing ship matters of "commander", but also the perfect co-ordination to achieve carrier-based aircraft carrier and "adaptation" of "Great Explorer."
Data indicate that most countries must be pilots or aircraft crew captain officers origin, and have some experience in aircraft carrier takeoff and landing and flying hours. Meanwhile, back on the aircraft carrier captain selection must also be amphibious assault ships, amphibious transport ships and other large auxiliary ship (boat) served on the ship (boat) long. Furthermore, it should have the appropriate high-level authorities and the shore ground forces work experience. In short, the aircraft captain all should be "extraordinary skill": flying, ship operation, command operations and general management "swordsmen." More importantly, he also is the use of international strategy, diplomacy, law of war as well as good communication with the media's "master."
Carrier-based aircraft carrier pilots as the "lucky" and never are also the focus of world attention. Extremely narrow view of the space ship and space, the difficulty of carrier-based aircraft pilot training pilots is much greater than the shore-based training, risk factor Gengshi Bi former doubled. Coupled with the flight, the sky is often lumped together in a special environment and sea mist, salt, rain and other harsh conditions, which require carrier-based pilots in addition to superb technical capacity war, but also must have a strong psychological.
If the aircraft captain and the pilot as a "red flower", they also need a lot of "green" to catching. Among the many "green leaves", the first aircraft carrier to be mentioned is the United captain. Carrier-based aircraft carrier United captain is the most capable assistant captain, he was in charge of aircraft carriers and their personnel management organization and command operations. Large carrier-based aircraft on dozens of planes, or even hundreds of aircraft, and have seven or eight models, only the best scheduling, in order to maximize the carrier-based aircraft carrier and its tremendous power and defense against ability, or will delay the aircraft, or even suffer great losses. Thus, the aviation leader will need to fully understand the associated aircraft, the individual must have a good flight experience, military training and command level, which also determines the importance of his carrier status and role.
Foreign aircraft operating in accordance with the experience of various types of support personnel on the aircraft carrier is also very important. Ship in a foreign carrier surface wear colorful clothing of staff, both yellow yellow helmet carrier take-off instructions personnel, yellow green, the official helmet of the aircraft carrier catapult and the official block device, there are no white helmet of the carrier landings commander, and blue blue helmets and carrier-based aircraft moving block member, and red the red helmet of the carrier-based aircraft crashed ambulance and so on. Their direct control in a way off and landing of aircraft carrier, combat effectiveness and safety of the "power." In fact, the captain, pilot, aircraft carrier United captain, and the protection of the large number of non-commissioned officers, usually constitutes a carrier to maintain the normal operation of the "chain." Some military experts have done statistics: even the smallest of the modern aircraft carrier, but also need all kinds of non-commissioned officers and more than 300 professional and technical officers, which goes far beyond serving other large surface combatants, the number needed to underwater submarines. As for medium-sized conventional-powered aircraft carrier, you need all kinds of non-commissioned officers and technical officers is more than 1,000 people, while large nuclear-powered aircraft carrier is at least 1,500 people or more. Above, also limited to a single aircraft carrier ship itself. In fact, the carrier has always been in the form of fleet activities at sea, aircraft often have to rely on cruisers, destroyers, frigates, submarines and support ships and many ships fast to its "escort." Zhezhi formation just out, is a three-dimensional, comprehensive, large operational system, to direct mobilization of such a formation, you need to have an efficient, lean fleet headquarters in the foreign military, commander of the headquarters is often given the rank of Navy Major General of the fleet commander.
In short, the aircraft carrier from the feasibility studies, design, construction, outfitting, service, to repairs, maintenance, and then retired scrap, we can say costly, technically complex, training problems, combat is extremely difficult to generate, the impact factor very much. But looking around the various elements, the key factor is the people, because "people are war weapons and equipment users, the creators of methods of warfare, military operations practice." Because of this, the new century, people paid special attention to the Navy, including the future aircraft carrier battle a variety of platforms, including the construction and personnel training. May 9, 2011, the Navy Minister summer level cadres and personnel work at the Naval Conference made it clear that the Navy has successfully completed a new large surface ships and submarines and other units of matching the work of thousands of soldiers, will effectively ensure that the new equipment testing and training schedule.