China's National Defense in 2010 (Full text)

China military:Officers including spokesman with China's Ministry of National Defense Geng Yansheng (2nd L) prepare to answer questions at a press conference in Beijing, capital of China, March 30, 2011. The Chinese government issued the white paper on China's national defense in 2010 on Thursday, which reiterates China's insistence on peaceful development and pursuit of a national defense policy that is defensive in nature.

The Information Office of China's State Council on Thursday issued a white paper titled "China's National Defense in 2010". Following is the full text of the document:

China's National Defense in 2010

Information Office of the State Council

The People's Republic of China

March 2011, Beijing



I. The Security Situation

II. National Defense Policy

III Modernization of the People's Liberation Army

IV. Deployment of the Armed Forces

V. National Defense Mobilization and Reserve Force Building

VI. Military Legal System

VII. Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense

VIII. Defense Expenditure

IX. Military Confidence-Building

X. Arms Control and Disarmament

Appendix I Major International Exchanges of the Chinese Military (2009-2010)

Appendix II Participation in Strategic Consultations and Dialogues (2009-2010)

Appendix III Joint Exercises and Training with Foreign Armed Forces (2009-2010)

Appendix IV China's Participation in UN Peacekeeping Operations (As of Dec. 31, 2010)

Appendix V Participation in International Disaster Relief Activities (2009-2010)

Appendix VI Imports and Exports of Seven Major Types of Conventional Arms of the PRC (2008)

Appendix VII Imports and Exports of Seven Major Types of Conventional Arms of the PRC (2009)

Appendix VIII Major Military Laws and Regulations Issued in 2009 and 2010 by China


In the first decade of the 21st century, the international community forged ahead in a new phase of opening up and cooperation, and at the same time faced crises and changes. Sharing opportunities for development and dealing with challenges with joint efforts have become the consensus of all countries in the world. Pulling together in the time of trouble, seeking mutual benefit and engaging in win-win cooperation are the only ways for humankind to achieve common development and prosperity.

China has now stood at a new historical point, and its future and destiny has never been more closely connected with those of the international community. In the face of shared opportunities and common challenges, China maintains its commitment to the new security concepts of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination. By connecting the fundamental interests of the Chinese people with the common interests of other peoples around the globe, connecting China's development with that of the world, and connecting China's security with world peace, China strives to build, through its peaceful development, a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity.

Looking into the second decade of the 21st century, China will continue to take advantage of this important period of strategic opportunities for national development, apply the Scientific Outlook on Development in depth, persevere on the path of peaceful development, pursue an independent foreign policy of peace and a national defense policy that is defensive in nature, map out both economic development and national defense in a unified manner and, in the process of building a society that is moderately affluent on a general basis, realize the unified goal of building a prosperous country and a strong military.

I. The Security Situation

The international situation is currently undergoing profound and complex changes. The progress toward economic globalization and a multi-polar world is irreversible, as is the advance toward informationization of society. The current trend toward peace, development and cooperation is irresistible. But, international strategic competition and contradictions are intensifying, global challenges are becoming more prominent, and security threats are becoming increasingly integrated, complex and volatile.

On the whole, the world remains peaceful and stable. The international community has reaped the first fruits in joint efforts to respond to the global financial crisis. All countries have stepped up to adjust their strategies and models for economic development, and no effort has been spared in attempting to foster new economic growth points. Scientific and technological innovations are breeding new breakthroughs. And economic globalization has achieved further progress. The international balance of power is changing, most notably through the economic strength and growing international status and influence of emerging powers and developing countries. Prospects for world multi-polarization are becoming clearer. The prevailing trend is towards reform in international systems. Steady progress is being made in the establishment of mechanisms for management of the global economy and finance. G20 is playing a more outstanding role. The international spotlight has turned to the reform of the UN and other international political and security systems. Profound realignments have taken place in international relations; economic interdependence among various countries has been enhanced; shared challenges have been increasing; and communication, coordination and cooperation have become mainstream in relationships among the world's major powers. As factors conducive to maintaining peace and containing conflict continue to grow, mankind can look forward to a future that on the whole is bright.

The international security situation has become more complex. International strategic competition centering on international order, comprehensive national strength and geopolitics has intensified. Contradictions continue to surface between developed and developing countries and between traditional and emerging powers, while local conflicts and regional flashpoints are a recurrent theme. In a number of countries, outbreaks of unrest are frequently triggered off by political, economic, ethnic, or religious disputes. In general, world peace remains elusive. Deep-seated contradictions and structural problems behind the international financial crisis have not been resolved. World economic recovery remains fragile and imbalanced. Security threats posed by such global challenges as terrorism, economic insecurity, climate change, nuclear proliferation, insecurity of information, natural disasters, public health concerns, and transnational crime are on the rise. Traditional security concerns blend with non-traditional ones and domestic concerns interact with international security ones, making it hard for traditional security approaches and mechanisms to respond effectively to the various security issues and challenges in the world.

International military competition remains fierce. Major powers are stepping up the realignment of their security and military strategies, accelerating military reform, and vigorously developing new and more sophisticated military technologies. Some powers have worked out strategies for outer space, cyber space and the polar regions, developed means for prompt global strikes, accelerated development of missile defense systems, enhanced cyber operations capabilities to occupy new strategic commanding heights. Some developing countries maintain the push towards strengthening their armed forces, and press on with military modernization. Progress has been made in international arms control, but prevention of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction remains complex, there is still much to do to maintain and strengthen the international non-proliferation mechanism.

The Asia-Pacific security situation is generally stable. Asia has taken the lead in economic recovery, and its growth as a whole has been sustained. With an enhanced sense of shared interests and destiny, Asian countries have seized the opportunities presented by economic globalization and regional economic integration, and maintained a commitment to promoting economic development and regional stability. They have persisted in multilateralism and open regionalism, actively developed bilateral and multilateral cooperation with countries inside and outside the region, and endeavored to build economic and security cooperation mechanisms with regional features. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is playing a growing role in promoting regional stability and development. The integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is moving ahead. There is growing cooperation in such mechanisms as China-ASEAN, ASEAN Plus Three (China, Japan and the Republic of Korea) and China-Japan-ROK. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) continues to make progress.

Nevertheless, Asia-Pacific security is becoming more intricate and volatile. Regional pressure points drag on and without solution in sight. There is intermittent tension on the Korean Peninsula. The security situation in Afghanistan remains serious. Political turbulence persists in some countries. Ethnic and religious discords are evident. Disputes over territorial and maritime rights and interests flare up occasionally. And terrorist, separatist and extremist activities run amok. Profound changes are taking shape in the Asia-Pacific strategic landscape. Relevant major powers are increasing their strategic investment. The United States is reinforcing its regional military alliances, and increasing its involvement in regional security affairs.

China is still in the period of important strategic opportunities for its development, and the overall security environment for it remains favorable. It has coped effectively with the impact of the international financial crisis, and sustained a steady and relatively rapid economic growth. China has vigorously maintained national security and social stability, and its comprehensive national strength has stepped up to a new stage. It has strengthened coordination and cooperation with major traditional powers and emerging countries, reinforced good-neighborly friendship and practical cooperation with neighboring countries, and extended mutually benefiting cooperation with other developing countries. China has played a unique role in collective action with other countries to meet global challenges. The Chinese government has formulated and implemented principles and policies for advancing peaceful development of cross-Strait relations in the new situation, promoted and maintained peace and stability in the area. Significant and positive progress has been achieved in cross-Strait relations. On the basis of opposing "Taiwan independence" and adhering to the "1992 Consensus," the two sides have enhanced political mutual trust, conducted consultations and dialogues, and reached a series of agreements for realizing direct and bilateral exchanges of mail, transport and trade, as well as promoting economic and financial cooperation across the Straits. The peaceful development of cross-Strait relations accords with the interests and aspirations of compatriots on both sides of the Straits, and is widely applauded by the international community.

China is meanwhile confronted by more diverse and complex security challenges. China has vast territories and territorial seas. It is in a critical phase of the building of a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. Therefore, it faces heavy demands in safeguarding national security. The "Taiwan independence" separatist force and its activities are still the biggest obstacle and threat to the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations. Further progress in cross-Strait relations is still confronted by some complicating factors. Separatist forces working for "East Turkistan independence" and "Tibet independence" have inflicted serious damage on national security and social stability. Pressure builds up in preserving China's territorial integrity and maritime rights and interests. Non-traditional security concerns, such as existing terrorism threats, energy, resources, finance, information and natural disasters, are on the rise. Suspicion about China, interference and countering moves against China from the outside are on the increase. The United States, in the defiance of the three Sino-US joint communiques, continues to sell weapons to Taiwan, severely impeding Sino-US relations and impairing the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations.

In the face of the complex security environment, China will hold high the banner of peace, development and cooperation, adhere to the concepts of overall security, cooperative security and common security, advocate its new security concept based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and cooperation, safeguard political, economic, military, social and information security in an all-round way, and endeavor to foster, together with other countries, an international security environment of peace, stability, equality, mutual trust, cooperation and win-win.

II. National Defense Policy

China pursues a national defense policy which is defensive in nature. In accordance with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China and other relevant laws, the armed forces of China undertake the sacred duty of resisting foreign aggression, defending the motherland, and safeguarding overall social stability and the peaceful labor of its people. To build a fortified national defense and strong armed forces compatible with national security and development interests is a strategic task of China's modernization, and a common cause of the people of all ethnic groups.

The pursuit of a national defense policy which is defensive in nature is determined by China's development path, its fundamental aims, its foreign policy, and its historical and cultural traditions. China unswervingly takes the road of peaceful development, strives to build a harmonious socialist society internally, and promotes the building of a harmonious world enjoying lasting peace and common prosperity externally. China unswervingly advances its reform and opening up as well as socialist modernization, making use of the peaceful international environment for its own development which in return will contribute to world peace. China unswervingly pursues an independent foreign policy of peace and promotes friendly cooperation with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. China unswervingly maintains its fine cultural traditions and its belief in valuing peace above all else, advocating the settlement of disputes through peaceful means, prudence on the issue of war, and the strategy of "attacking only after being attacked." China will never seek hegemony, nor will it adopt the approach of military expansion now or in the future, no matter how its economy develops.

The two sides of the Taiwan Strait are destined to ultimate reunification in the course of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It is the responsibility of the Chinese people on both sides of the Straits to work hand in hand to end the history of hostility, and to avoid repeating the history of armed conflict between fellow countrymen. The two sides should take a positive attitude toward the future, and strive to create favorable conditions to gradually resolve, through consultation on an equal footing, both issues inherited from the past and new ones that emerge in the development of cross-Strait relations. The two sides may discuss political relations in the special situation that China is not yet reunified in a pragmatic manner. The two sides can hold contacts and exchanges on military issues at an appropriate time and talk about a military security mechanism of mutual trust, in a bid to act together to adopt measures to further stabilize cross-Strait relations and ease concerns regarding military security. The two sides should hold consultations on the basis of upholding the one-China principle to formally end hostilities and reach a peace agreement.

The goals and tasks of China's national defense in the new era are defined as follows:

-- Safeguarding national sovereignty, security and interests of national development. China's national defense is tasked to guard against and resist aggression, defend the security of China's lands, inland waters, territorial waters and airspace, safeguard its maritime rights and interests, and maintain its security interests in space, electromagnetic space and cyber space. It is also tasked to oppose and contain the separatist forces for "Taiwan independence," crack down on separatist forces for "East Turkistan independence" and "Tibet independence," and defend national sovereignty and territorial integrity. National defense is both subordinate to and in service of the country's development and security strategies. It safeguards this important period of strategic opportunities for national development. China implements the military strategy of active defense of the new era, adheres to the principles of independence and self-defense by the whole nation, strengthens the construction of its armed forces and that of its border, territorial sea and territorial air defenses, and enhances national strategic capabilities. China consistently upholds the policy of no first use of nuclear weapons, adheres to a self-defensive nuclear strategy, and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any other country.

-- Maintaining social harmony and stability. The Chinese armed forces loyally follow the tenet of serving the people wholeheartedly, actively participate in and support national economic and social development, and safeguard national security and social stability in accordance with the law. Exercising to the full their advantageous conditions in human resources, equipment, technology and infrastructure, the armed forces contribute to the building of civilian infrastructure and other engineering construction projects, to poverty-alleviation initiatives, to improvements in people's livelihood, and to ecological and environmental conservation. They organize preparations for military operations other than war (MOOTW) in a scientific way, work out pre-designed strategic programs against non-traditional security threats, reinforce the building of specialized forces for emergency response, and enhance capabilities in counter-terrorism and stability maintenance, emergency rescue, and the protection of security. They resolutely undertake urgent, difficult, dangerous, and arduous tasks of emergency rescue and disaster relief, thereby securing lives and property of the people. Taking the maintenance of overall social stability as a critical task, the armed forces resolutely subdue all subversive and sabotage activities by hostile forces, as well as violent and terrorist activities. The Chinese armed forces carry on the glorious tradition of supporting the government and cherishing the people, strictly abide by state policies, laws and regulations and consolidate the unity between the military and the government and between the military and the people.

-- Accelerating the modernization of national defense and the armed forces. Bearing in mind the primary goal of accomplishing mechanization and attaining major progress in informationization by 2020, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) perseveres with mechanization as the foundation and informationization as the driving force, making extensive use of its achievements in information technology, and stepping up the composite and integrated development of mechanization and informationization. The PLA has expanded and made profound preparations for military struggle, which serve as both pull and impetus to the overall development of modernization. It intensifies theoretical studies on joint operations under conditions of informationization, advances the development of high-tech weaponry and equipment, develops new types of combat forces, strives to establish joint operation systems in conditions of informationization, accelerates the transition from military training under conditions of mechanization to military training in conditions of informationization, presses ahead with implementation of the strategic project for talented people, invests greater efforts in building a modern logistics capability, and enhances its capabilities in accomplishing diversified military tasks in order to win local wars under the conditions of informationization, so as to accomplish its historical missions at the new stage in the new century. The state takes economic development and national defense building into simultaneous consideration, adopts a mode of integrated civilian-military development. It endeavors to establish and improve systems of weaponry and equipment research and manufacturing, military personnel training, and logistical support, that integrate military with civilian purposes and combine military efforts with civilian support. China vigorously and steadily advances reform of national defense and the armed forces, strengthens strategic planning and management, and endeavors to promote the scientific development of the national defense and armed forces.

-- Maintaining world peace and stability. China consistently upholds the new security concepts of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination, advocates the settlement of international disputes and regional flashpoint issues through peaceful means, opposes resort to the use or threat to use of force at will, opposes acts of aggression and expansion, and opposes hegemony and power politics in any form. China conducts military exchanges with other countries following the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, develops cooperative military relations that are non-aligned, non-confrontational and not directed against any third party, and promotes the establishment of just and effective collective security mechanisms and military confidence-building mechanisms. China adheres to the concepts of openness, pragmatism and cooperation, expands its participation in international security cooperation, strengthens strategic coordination and consultation with major powers and neighboring countries, enhances military exchanges and cooperation with developing countries, and takes part in UN peace-keeping operations, maritime escort, international counter-terrorism cooperation, and disaster relief operations. In line with the principles of being just, reasonable, comprehensive and balanced, China stands for effective disarmament and arms control, and endeavors to maintain global strategic stability.

III. Modernization of the People's Liberation Army

Over the 60 years and more since its founding, the PLA has made great achievements in its modernization. It has grown from a single service into a strong military force featuring a range of services and arms, and is now beginning to make progress towards informationization. In recent years, the PLA has enhanced its comprehensive development in accordance with the principle of integrating revolutionization, modernization and regularization, and continuously accelerated revolution in military affairs with Chinese characteristics.

History of the PLA's Modernization

Following the founding of the New China in 1949, the PLA set a general guideline and objective of building outstanding, modernized and revolutionary armed forces. It built the Navy, the Air Force and other technical arms, and developed mechanized weaponry and equipment, as well as nuclear weapons for the purpose of self-defense. It established regularized military rules, formed a system of institutional education, and strengthened ideological and political work. It carried out a series of reforms in military command, organization and structure, training, and regulations. The PLA began to develop from a primary to an advanced level in mastering modern military science and technologies.

Under the new historical conditions of reform and opening-up, the PLA embarked on a road of building a streamlined military with Chinese characteristics. As its guiding principle for military build-up underwent a strategic shift from preparations for imminent wars to peacetime construction, the PLA advanced its modernization step by step in a well-planned way under the precondition that such efforts should be both subordinate to and in the service of the country's overall development. The PLA underwent significant adjustment and reform in accordance with the principles of making itself streamlined, combined and efficient, downsized in scale, upgraded in quality, and boosted its capability of self-defense in modern conditions of warfare.

Adapting itself to new trends in world military development, the PLA, by following the general requirements of being qualified politically and competent militarily, and having a superior modus operandi, strict discipline, and reliable logistics support, strengthened its overall development, regarded revolution in military affairs with Chinese characteristics as the only way to modernize the military. By adopting a strategy of strengthening the military by means of science and technology, the PLA gradually shifted its focus from quantity and scale to quality and efficiency, from a manpower-intensive to a technology-intensive model. It laid down a three-step development strategy and adopted a step-change approach which takes mechanization as the foundation and informationization as the focus. It took preparations for military struggle as the driving force for its modernization, and enhanced its capability in defensive operations in conditions of informationization.

To meet the new and changing needs of national security, the PLA tries to accentuate modernization from a higher platform. It strengthens the building of a new type of combat capability to win local wars in conditions of informationization, strengthens the composite development of mechanization and informationization with the latter as the leading factor, focuses informationization on raising its fighting capabilities based on information systems, and enhances the capabilities in fire power, mobility, protection, support and informationization.

Building of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Second Artillery Force

In line with the strategic requirements of mobile operations and tri-dimensional offense and defense, the PLA Army (PLAA) has invested additional efforts in reform, innovation and development, and advanced the overall transformation of the service. The PLAA has emphasized the development of new types of combat forces, optimized its organization and structure, strengthened military training in conditions of informationization, accelerated the digitized upgrading and retrofitting of main battle weaponry, organically deployed new types of weapon platforms, and significantly boosted its capabilities in long-distance maneuvers and integrated assaults. The PLAA mobile operational units include 18 combined corps, plus additional independent combined operational divisions (brigades). The combined corps, consisting of divisions and brigades, are respectively under the seven military area commands of Shenyang, Beijing, Lanzhou, Jinan, Nanjing, Guangzhou and Chengdu.

The PLAA has made great progress in strengthening its arms. The armored component has strengthened the development of digitized units, accelerated the mechanization of motorized units, and improved its combat system, which combines heavy, light, amphibious and air-borne assault forces. The artillery component has been working on new types of weapons, equipment, and ammunition with higher levels of informationization, forming an operational and tactical in-depth strike system, and developing the capacity to carry out precision operations with integrated reconnaissance, control, strike and assessment capabilities. The air defense component has stepped up the development of new types of radar, command information systems, and medium- and high-altitude ground-to-air missiles. It has formed a new interception system consisting of anti-aircraft artillery and missiles, and possesses enhanced capabilities of medium- and low-altitude air and missile defense operations. The PLAA aviation wing has worked to move from being a support force to being a main-battle assault force, further optimized its combat force structure, and conducted modularized grouping according to different tasks. It has upgraded armed helicopters, transport and service helicopters, and significantly improved its capabilities in air strike, force projection, and support. The engineering component has accelerated its transformation into a new model of integrated and multi-functional support force which is rapid in response and can be used both in peacetime and in war. It has also strengthened its special capabilities in emergency rescue and disaster relief. In this way, capabilities in integral combat support and military operations other than MOOTW missions have been further enhanced. The chemical defense component has worked to develop an integrated force for nuclear, biological and chemical defense which operates both in peacetime and in war, combines civilian and military efforts, and integrates systems from various arms and services. It has developed enhanced permanent, multi-dimensional and multi-terrain defense capabilities against nuclear, biological and chemical threats.

In line with the requirements of offshore defense strategy, the PLA Navy (PLAN) endeavors to accelerate the modernization of its integrated combat forces, enhances its capabilities in strategic deterrence and counterattack, and develops its capabilities in conducting operations in distant waters and in countering non-traditional security threats. It seeks to further improve its combat capabilities through regularized and systematic basic training and actual combat training in complex electromagnetic environments. By organizing naval vessels for drills in distant waters, it develops training models for MOOTW missions. New types of submarines, frigates, aircraft and large support vessels have been deployed as planned. The PLAN enhances the construction of composite support bases so as to build a shore-based support system which matches the deployment of forces and the development of weaponry and equipment. The Navy has accelerated the building of surface logistical platforms by deploying ambulance boats and helicopters, and a standard 10,000 DWT hospital ship, and is working to further improve its surface support capabilities. The Navy explores new methods of logistics support for sustaining long-time maritime missions. There are three fleets under the Navy, namely, the Beihai Fleet, the Donghai Fleet and the Nanhai Fleet, each of which has under its command fleet aviation, support bases, flotillas, maritime garrison commands, aviation divisions and marine brigades.

To satisfy the strategic requirements of conducting both offensive and defensive operations, the modernization and transformation of the PLA Air Force (PLAAF) follows a carefully-structured plan. It strengthens and improves the PLAAF development and personnel development strategies, and enhances its research into the operation and transformation of air forces in conditions of informationization. The PLAAF is working to ensure the development of a combat force structure that focuses on air strikes, air and missile defense, and strategic projection, to improve its leadership and command system and build up an informationized, networked base support system. It conducts training on confrontation between systems in complex electromagnetic environments, and carries out maneuvers, drills and operational assembly training in different tactical contexts. The PLAAF strengthens routine combat readiness of air defenses, taking the defense of the capital as the center and the defense of coastal and border areas as the key. It has carried out MOOTWs, such as air security for major national events, emergency rescue and disaster relief, international rescue, and emergency airlift. It has gradually deployed airborne early warning and control aircraft, third-generation combat aircraft, and other advanced weaponry and equipment. The PLAAF has under it an air command in each of the seven military area commands of Shenyang, Beijing, Lanzhou, Jinan, Nanjing, Guangzhou and Chengdu. It also has under its command an airborne corps. Under each air command at military area level are aviation divisions, ground-to-air missile divisions (brigades and regiments), anti-aircraft artillery brigades (regiments), radar brigades (regiments), electronic countermeasures (ECM) regiments (battalions), and other units. An aviation division has under its command aviation regiments and related stations.

Following the principle of building a lean and effective force, the PLA Second Artillery Force (PLASAF) strives to push forward its modernization and improves its capabilities in rapid reaction, penetration, precision strike, damage infliction, protection, and survivability, while steadily enhancing its capabilities in strategic deterrence and defensive operations. It continues to develop a military training system unique with the strategic missile force, improve the conditions of on-base, simulated and networked training, conduct trans-regional maneuvers and training with opposing forces in complex electromagnetic environments. It has set up laboratories for key disciplines, specialties and basic education, and successfully developed systems for automatic missile testing, operational and tactical command and control, strategic missile simulation training, and the support system for the survival of combatants in operational positions. It has worked to strengthen its safety systems, strictly implement safety regulations, and ensure the safety of missile weaponry and equipment, operational positions and other key elements. It has continued to maintain good safety records in nuclear weapon management. Through the years, the PLASAF has grown into a strategic force equipped with both nuclear and conventional missiles.

Accelerating Informationization

In line with its strategic objective of building informationized armed forces and winning informationized wars, and with overall planning and phased implementation, the PLA is trying to break through major bottlenecks which hinder the building and improvement of combat effectiveness of systems. The fighting capabilities of the armed forces in conditions of informationization have been significantly raised.

A step-change development has been achieved in information infrastructure. The total length of the national defense optical fiber communication network has increased by a large margin, forming a new generation information transmission network with optical fiber communication as the mainstay and satellite and short-wave communications as assistance.

Significant progress has been made in building information systems for reconnaissance and intelligence, command and control, and battlefield environment awareness. Information systems have been widely applied in logistics and equipment support. A preliminary level has been achieved in interoperability among command and control systems, combat forces, and support systems, making order transmission, intelligence distribution, command and guidance more efficient and rapid.

Strategic planning, leadership and management of informationization have been strengthened, and relevant laws, regulations, standards, policies and systems further improved. A range of measures, such as assembly training and long-distance education, have been taken to disseminate knowledge on information and skills in applying it. Notable achievements have been made in the training of commanding officers for joint operations, management personnel for informationization, personnel specialized in information technology, and personnel for the operation and maintenance of new equipment. The complement of new-mode and high-caliber military personnel who can meet the needs of informationization has been steadily enlarged.

Building Joint Operation Systems

The PLA takes the building of joint operation systems as the focal point of its modernization and preparations for military struggle, and strives to enhance its fighting capabilities based on information systems.

Intensifying research into operational theories. A new generation of doctrines on command in joint campaigns and operations, and other relevant supporting doctrines have been issued and implemented, and a series of theoretical works and training textbooks on joint campaigns have been compiled, which have formed the basic theoretical framework for joint operations and a methodological system for joint campaign training.

Strengthening the building of combat forces. Catering to the needs of the military's informationization, the PLA reforms and improves its leadership and command systems, adjusts and optimizes the organization and structure of combat forces, deploys new types of combat and support forces, gives priority to the building of land, maritime and air task formations, speeds up the transformation of various arms and services, and raises the level of modularized grouping and combined employment, so as to form a system of streamlined, joint, multi-functional and efficient system of combat forces.

Improving operational command systems. To ensure an authoritative, lean, agile and efficient operational capability, the PLA speeds up the building of a joint operational command system, which features sound structure and organization, applicability in both peacetime and war, tri-service integration, optimized mechanisms, smoothness in operation and high efficiency.

Enhancing integrated support capabilities. Following the principle of providing systematic, precise and intensive support, the PLA strengthens the construction of composite combat and support bases, optimizes battlefield support layout, and improves position facilities for the following services: command and control, reconnaissance and intelligence, communication, surveying and mapping, navigation, meteorological and hydrological support as well as rear storage facilities, military communication and equipment maintenance facilities, thus forming an initial battlefield support capability that matches the development of weaponry and equipment and satisfies the needs of combat units in offensive and defensive operations. The PLA has improved joint support mechanisms, enhanced IT-based integrated support, and established a basic integrated support system linking strategic, operational and tactical levels.

Promoting Transition in Military Training

The PLA upholds that military training is the basic means to generate and raise combat effectiveness, and is working to reform training in all respects, and accelerate the transition from training in conditions of mechanization to training in conditions of informationization.

Reforming training tasks. In accordance with the new edition of the Outline for Military Training and Evaluation, the PLA intensifies training of command organs, training in operating command information systems and informationized weaponry and equipment, and information skills. It enhances training to fulfill its missions, strengthens research and training in maintaining maritime, space and electromagnetic space security, and carries out MOOTW training. It studies the technical and tactical performance of electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment, intensifies anti-jamming (AJ) and ECM training, and organizes operational training exercises in complex electromagnetic environments.

Innovating training methodologies. With a top-down approach to training, the PLA organizes campaign-level training within the framework of strategic-level training, service campaign-level training in accordance with the joint campaign-level training, and unit training within the framework of campaign-level command post training, in an effort to merge training at different levels into an organic whole. Based on and supported by command information systems, the PLA organizes combined training of different combat components, assembly training of various combat elements, and joint training of all systems and all components. It intensifies joint training of task formations and confrontational training, and places emphasis on training in complex electromagnetic environments, unfamiliar terrain, and complex weather conditions. The PLA holds trans-regional exercises for organic divisions (brigades) led by campaign-level command organs, raises training evaluation standards, and organizes training based on the needs, formations and procedures of actual combat.

Improving military training means. The PLA speeds up the construction of large-scale integrated training bases which meet the requirements raised by joint training, as well as IT-based upgrading of combined tactical training bases, with the priority being given to the construction of complex electromagnetic environments. The PLA strives to develop simulation training devices and systems, and improve training information network.

Reforming training management. The PLA is working to optimize its leadership and management system, update regulations, and implement a system of accountability for training. It reforms its training evaluation system, formulates detailed criteria for individual and unit performance, enhances quantitative analysis and evaluation, and enforces meticulous management of the whole process and all aspects of military training.

Innovating Political Work

In a spirit of innovation, the PLA strives to push forward its political work so as to make it adapt to new situations and achieve new development. The newly revised Regulations on the Political Work of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, promulgated in August 2010, expressly stipulates that the political work of the PLA must guarantee - politically, ideologically and organizationally - the nature of the people's army under the absolute leadership of the Party, the scientific development of the national defense and armed forces, and the performance of the PLA's historical missions at this new stage in the new century.

Closely in line with the times, the tasks and missions, and the characteristics of its officers and men, the PLA is working to improve and innovate its political work to achieve a more scientific approach. Through education in ideology, guidance of opinion, and cultural edification, the core values of the contemporary revolutionary serviceman of "loyalty to the Party, love of the people, service to the country, dedication to the mission, and belief in honor" have been fostered. In order to keep its political work effective and focused, the PLA also strives to study new conditions regarding the building of armed forces and changes to the state of mind of officers and men brought about by the new situations. The PLA has built a PLA-wide political network connecting all units and educational institutions, issued digitalized movie players to all border and coastal defense units, so as to realize networked education and real-time information transmission.

Opinions on Strengthening Political Work in MOOTW, promulgated in March 2009, stipulates that the PLA should have a good understanding and mastery of the characteristics and laws of political work in MOOTWs, keep in line with tasks and realities, and explore new areas and functions of the supporting role of political work. Opinions on Improving Psychological Services in the Armed Forces under the New Situation, promulgated in October 2009, requires the provision of psychological health services, such as psychological evaluation, psychological training and psychological crisis intervention. It also rules that within five years there must be at least one professional psychotherapist for each brigade- (regiment-) level unit, and three or more specially trained psychological assistants for each company-level unit.

Implementing the Strategic Project for Talented Individuals

The PLA is further implementing the strategic project for talents in an effort to increase its complement of new-type and high-caliber military personnel. It further promotes the cultivation of a contingent of commanding officers, staff officers, scientists, technical experts and non-commissioned officers (NCOs) by taking the improvement of ideological and political qualities as the foundation, the transformation of capabilities as the main theme, the cultivation of joint operation commanders, informationization professionals, IT specialists, and experts in operating and maintaining new types of equipment as focus.

The PLA is continuing to adjust and reform its management system for military officers. Issued in January 2009, the Regulations on Work Procedures for the Selection and Appointment of Military Cadres (Trial) requires that democracy be promoted, procedures regulated, supervision tightened, and rationality, accuracy, fairness and credibility raised in the selection and appointment of military cadres. The PLA has issued implementation measures and general standards for the evaluation of staff officers and specialized technical officers, and formulated an overall plan for the adjustment and reform of management systems for specialized technical personnel.

The PLA is laying stress on the training of commanding officers for joint operations and high-level experts in technological innovation. It has published basic readers and held lectures on joint operations through all its arms and services. While giving attention to selecting, commending and rewarding outstanding commanding and staff officers, it has placed particular emphasis on training and promoting excellent staff officers, and company- and battalion-level officers of great potential. To cultivate commanding officers for joint operations, the PLA has also reformed the model for training graduates for its Masters Degree in Military Science. Following the promulgation of Implementation Measures for Military High-Level Personnel Project in Scientific and Technological Innovation, every two years the PLA selects 200 leading scientists and high-performing talents from different disciplines for special training in order to improve their innovation aptitude in science and technology.

The PLA is working to reform its NCO selection and training system. It has increased the number of positions for high-tech specialized NCOs, implemented a pre-assignment accreditation system for evaluating the skills of specialized technical NCOs, developed an expert assessment system for selecting senior NCOs, and further improved its NCO training and management system.

Multilateral Approach to Building a Modern Logistics System

In order to enhance its logistical support capabilities for diversified military tasks, the PLA is working on a multilateral approach to building a modern logistics system by speeding up the process of integrating systems, outsourcing services, informationizing processes, and managing its logistical support systems in a more scientific way.

The PLA is strengthening logistics reforms. It improves the mechanism of the joint logistics system first adopted by the Jinan Military Area Command mainly by readjusting functions, rationalizing internal relations, optimizing structures, and raising cost-effectiveness. It continues the process of outsourcing daily maintenance services, and takes steps to outsource other services, such as general-purpose materials storage and integrated civilian-military equipment maintenance. Moreover, the PLA endeavors to upgrade and retrofit existing logistics equipment, assess the development of new-generation equipment, and undertake pilot research on key technologies. It promotes the serviceman support card system, and develops the military logistics information system which focuses on the dynamic supervision of strategic logistical warehouses and packing of strategic materials in storage and military transportation. It reviews and simplifies logistics rules and regulations, and improves the system of logistical support standards and regulations covering supply, consumption, and management. The PLA enhances auditing and supervision of major construction and reform projects, and pushes forward reforms of such policies and systems as financial management, material procurement, medical care, housing, and insurance.

The PLA meticulously organizes and provides logistical support for key events. Examples are the National Day Parade in celebration of the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People' s Republic of China, escort operations in the Gulf of Aden and waters off Somalia, joint exercises with foreign military forces, security work for the Shanghai World Expo, and emergency rescue operations both at home and abroad. It also provides strong and reliable logistical support for those troops who take part in rescue and relief operations following disasters, such as the Yushu earthquake and the Zhouqu mud-rock slide.

The PLA is working to improve supply to and support for its units. It has adjusted the standards of overhead expenses, regional subsidies, grass-roots post allowances and professional post allowances; adopted new standards of military rations and housing; expanded the catalogue of medicines used in military medical care; implemented rest and recuperation (R&R) plans for officers and men; and provided better mental health services. It has fulfilled its three-year plan for integrated improvement of grass-roots logistics systems, so as to provide an effective solution to acute and complex problems in the supply of water, heating, and staple and non-staple food for brigade- and regiment-level units, for border and coastal defense units, for small, scattered, and distant units, and for units directly under the headquarters. By the end of 2009, replacement of old uniforms with the 07 series had been completed for all PLA troops.

Accelerating the Development of New and High-Tech Weaponry and Equipment

The PLA is gaining momentum in developing new and high-tech weaponry and equipment, strengthening the retrofitting and management of existing equipment, and promoting the composite development of mechanized and informationized weaponry and equipment.

The PLA is working to improve the quality and optimize the composition of its weaponry and equipment. It has formed a system with second-generation equipment as the main body and third generation as the backbone. The PLAA has developed for its land operations a weaponry system with helicopters, armored assault vehicles, and anti-air and suppression weapons as the spine. The PLAN has built for its maritime operations a weaponry system with new types of submarines, surface vessels and surface attack aircraft as the spine. The PLAAF has formed for its air control operations a weaponry system with new types of combat aircraft and ground-to-air missile systems as the spine. The PLASAF has set up a ground-to-ground weaponry system with its medium- and long-range missiles as the spine.

The PLA is working to improve its capabilities in managing, maintaining and supporting equipment. It widely applies modern management techniques and enhances standardized and meticulous management of equipment. Educational institutions, research institutes and manufacturers are encouraged to recruit and train more experts in new equipment. The PLA works in coordination with R&D institutes and defense industry manufacturers to enhance its maintenance and support for high-tech equipment, and develops an integrated civilian-military maintenance and support system. The PLA has developed comprehensive capabilities in equipment maintenance which cover multi-functional testing, mobile rescue and rush repair, and long-distance technical support. Recent emergency rescue and disaster relief operations, counter-terrorism exercises, and fully equipped training and maneuvers have testified the achievements of the development and management of weaponry and equipment, demonstrating a notable improvement in the PLA' s capabilities of equipment support in long-distance and trans-regional maneuvers, escort operations in distant waters, and complex battlefield environments.

The PLA is planning its future development of weaponry and equipment. By understanding and scientifically mastering the features and rules of information technology as being compatible, systematic, integrated, and holistic, the PLA seeks to promote the organic compatibility and composite development of weapon platforms and integrated electro-info systems. With the use of advanced and mature technologies and devices, the PLA is working, selectively and with priorities, to retrofit its existing weaponry and equipment to upgrade its comprehensive performance in a systematic, organic and integrated way, so as to increase the cost-effectiveness of developing weaponry and equipment.

IV. Deployment of the Armed Forces

Adapting to changes both in times and security environment, the Chinese armed forces take an active role in dealing with various security threats, safeguard national security and development interests, and play an important role in maintaining world peace and promoting common development.

Safeguarding Border, Coastal and Territorial Air Security

China practices an administration system of sharing responsibilities between the military and the local authorities in border and coastal defense. The armed forces are mainly tasked to safeguard the border, coastal and maritime security, and guard against, stop and subdue such activities as foreign intrusions, encroachments, provocations and cross-border sabotage. The main responsibilities of the border public security force are as follows: border, coastal and maritime public security administration, entry-exit frontier inspection at ports; prevention and crackdown on illegal and criminal acts in border and coastal areas, such as illegal border crossing, drug trafficking and smuggling; and organization of and participation in counter-terrorist and emergency-management operations in border and coastal areas. Organs of maritime surveillance, fisheries administration, marine affairs, inspection and quarantine, and customs are responsible for ensuring legitimate rights, law enforcement, and administration. The State Commission of Border and Coastal Defense, under the dual leadership of the State Council and the Central Military Commission (CMC), coordinates China's border and coastal defenses. All military area commands, as well as border and coastal provinces, cities and counties, have commissions to coordinate border and coastal defenses within their respective jurisdictions.

In recent years, in line with the policy of consolidating border defense, cultivating good neighborliness and friendship, maintaining stability and promoting development, the PLA frontier and coastal guards abide by relevant laws and regulations of China as well as any treaties and agreements with neighboring countries, well perform border defense duties, maintain a rigorous guard against any invasion, encroachment or cross-border sabotage, timely prevent any violation of border and coastal policies, laws and regulations and changes to the current borderlines, and effectively safeguard the security and stability of the borders, coastal areas and maritime waters within their jurisdictions. The border public security force makes solid progress in border defense and control, counter-terrorism, and maintenance of stability. It has strengthened efforts in port inspection, maritime management and control, and clampdown on crimes, including illegal border crossing, drug-trafficking and smuggling. Since 2009, it has solved 37,000 cases and confiscated 3,845 illegal guns.

China has always treated combined military, police and civilian efforts as a strong guarantee for consolidating border and coastal defenses and developing border and coastal areas. In recent years, China has steadily improved a border and coastal defense force system featuring the PLA as the mainstay, the coordination and cooperation of other relevant forces, and the extensive participation of the militia, the reserve forces and the people in the border and coastal areas. It has advanced the informationization of border and coastal defenses, taking the command system as the focus and information infrastructure as the support, and strengthened efforts in building border and coastal defense infrastructure. This has enhanced border and maritime control capabilities and promoted the economic construction and social stability in the border and coastal areas.

Territorial air security is an important constituent of overall national security. The PLAAF is the mainstay of national territorial air defense, and in accordance with the instructions of the CMC, the Army, Navy, and People's Armed Police Force (PAPF) all undertake some territorial air defense responsibilities. The PLAAF exercises unified command over all air defense components in accordance with the CMC's intent. China's territorial air defense system stands on permanent alert. It keeps track of any developments in the air, preserves air traffic order, organizes combat air patrols, handles air emergencies, and resolutely defends China's sovereignty over its territorial air and its air security.

Maintaining Social Stability

In accordance with relevant laws and regulations, and mainly under the unified leadership of local Party committees and governments, the armed forces of China assist the public security forces in maintaining social order and ensure that the people live and work in peace and stability.

The PAPF is the state's backbone and shock force in handling public emergencies. Since 2009, it has handled 24 acts of serious violence and crime, including hostage taking, participated in 201 operations of hunting down criminal suspects, and fulfilled the task of security provision during the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Shanghai World Expo, and the Guangzhou Asian Games.

In November 2010, the CMC approved and promulgated Regulations on Emergency Command in Handling Emergencies by the Armed Forces, which specifies for the armed forces regulations concerning their organization, command, force deployment, integrated support, and civil-military coordination while carrying out missions to maintain social stability and handle emergencies.

Participating in National Construction, Emergency Rescue and Disaster Relief

As stipulated by the Constitution and laws, an important task for the armed forces is to take part in national construction, emergency rescue, and disaster relief.

The PLA and PAPF have actively participated in and supported national construction work, of which a key component is the large-scale development of the western region. In the past two years, they have contributed more than 16 million workdays and utilized 1.3 million motor vehicles and machines, and participated in construction of more than 600 major infrastructure projects relating to transportation, hydropower, communications and energy. They have set up more than 3,500 contact points for rural poverty alleviation, and provided assistance to over 8,000 small public initiatives, such as water-saving irrigation projects, drinking water projects for both people and livestock, road construction projects, and hydropower projects. The armed forces stationed in the western region have planted 11 million trees and afforested 3.2 million mu of barren hills and desert land by large-scale forestation and aerial planting. PLA medical and health units have provided assistance to 130 county-level hospitals in poverty-stricken western areas, sent there 351 medical teams and donated 110 sets (items) of instruments and equipment. With donations, the armed forces have financed and built eight schools and one rehabilitation center in earthquake-stricken areas in Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu provinces.

The armed forces of China act as the shock force in emergency rescue and disaster relief. In January 2009, with the armed forces as the mainstay, China formed eight state-level emergency-response professional units, boasting a total of 50,000 personnel, specializing in flood control and emergency rescue, earthquake rescue, nuclear, biological and chemical emergency rescue, urgent air transportation, rapid road repair, maritime emergency search and rescue, emergency mobile communication support, and medical aid and epidemic prevention. In July 2009, China integrated the 31,000-strong PAPF protecting water and electricity supplies and communications into the national emergency rescue system. Provincial level units specializing in emergency rescue have been formed with the joint participation of military area commands and relevant provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities directly under the central government.

In the past two years, the PLA and PAPF have engaged a total of 1.845 million troop deployments and 790,000 deployments of vehicles or machines of various types, flown over 181 sorties (including the use of helicopters), organized 6.43 million militiamen and reservists, participated in disaster relief operations in cases of floods, earthquakes, droughts, typhoons and forest fires, rescued or evacuated a total of 1.742 million people, rush-transported 303,000 tons of goods, dredged 3,742 km of waterways, dug 4,443 wells, fortified 728 km of dikes and dams, and delivered 504,000 tons of domestic water.

Participating in UN Peacekeeping Operations

As a responsible major power, China has consistently supported and actively participated in the UN peacekeeping operations, making a positive contribution to world peace.

In 1990, the PLA sent five military observers to the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) - the first time China had taken part in UN peacekeeping operations. In 1992, it dispatched an engineering corps of 400 officers and men to the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) - the first time China had sent an organic unit on peacekeeping missions. It established the Peacekeeping Affairs Office of the Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China in 2001. In 2002, it joined the UN Stand-by Arrangement System. In 2009, it established the Peacekeeping Center of the Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China. As of December 2010, China has dispatched 17,390 military personnel to 19 UN peace-keeping missions. Nine officers and men have lost their lives on duty.

Tough, brave and devoted, the Chinese peacekeeping troops have fulfilled various tasks entrusted to them by the UN in a responsible and professional way. They have built and repaired over 8,700 km of roads and 270 bridges, cleared over 8,900 mines and various explosive devices, transported over 600,000 tons of cargo across a total distance of 9.3 million km, and treated 79,000 patients.

As of December 2010, the PLA had 1,955 officers and men serving in nine UN mission areas. China has dispatched more peacekeeping personnel than any other permanent member of the UN Security Council. Among these are 94 military observers and staff officers; 175 engineering troops and 43 medical personnel for the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (UNMONUC); 275 engineering troops, 240 transportation troops and 43 medical personnel for the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL); 275 engineering troops and 60 medical personnel for the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL); 275 engineering troops, 100 transportation troops and 60 medical personnel for the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS); and 315 engineering troops for the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID).

Conducting Escort Operations in the Gulf of Aden and Waters off Somalia

In line with relevant UN resolutions, China dispatched naval ships to conduct escort operations in the Gulf of Aden and waters off Somalia on December 26, 2008. They are mainly charged with safeguarding the security of Chinese ships and personnel passing through the Gulf of Aden and Somali waters, and the security of ships delivering humanitarian supplies for the World Food Program and other international organizations, and shelter pass-by foreign vessels as much as possible. As of December 2010, the Chinese Navy has dispatched, in seven sorties, 18 ship deployments, 16 helicopters, and 490 Special Operation Force (SOF) soldiers on escort missions. Through accompanying escort, area patrol, and onboard escort, the Chinese Navy has provided protection for 3,139 ships sailing under Chinese and foreign flags, rescued 29 ships from pirate attacks, and recovered nine ships released from captivity.

China takes a proactive and open attitude toward international escort cooperation. Chinese escort fleets have established mechanisms for regular intelligence exchange and sharing with relevant countries and organizations. It has exchanged 24 boarding visits of commanders with fleets from the EU, the multinational naval force, NATO, Russia, the ROK, the Netherlands and Japan. It has conducted joint escort operations with Russian fleets and joint maritime exercises with ROK escort ships, and exchanged officers for onboard observations with Dutch fleets. China has joined international regimes such as the UN liaison groups' meeting on Somali pirates, and the international conference on "intelligence sharing and conflict prevention" escort cooperation.

Holding Joint Military Exercises and Training with Other Countries

In adherence to the principles of being non-aligned, non- confrontational, and not directed against any third party, the PLA has held joint exercises and training with other countries pursuant to the guidelines of mutual benefit, equality and reciprocity. As of December 2010, the PLA has held 44 joint military and training exercises with foreign troops. This is conducive to promoting mutual trust and cooperation, drawing on useful lessons, and accelerating the PLA's modernization.

Joint counter-terrorism military exercises within the SCO framework are being institutionalized. In 2002, China ran a joint counter-terrorism military exercise with Kyrgyzstan, the first ever with a foreign country. In 2003, China ran a multilateral joint counter-terrorism military exercise with other SCO members, again the first ever with foreign countries. In 2006, China and Tajikistan ran a joint counter-terrorism military exercise. China and Russia as well as other SCO members ran a series of "Peace Mission" joint counter-terrorism military exercises in 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2010.

Maritime joint exercises have been held on a regular basis. In 2003, China ran a joint maritime search-and-rescue exercise with Pakistan, the first ever between China and a foreign country. During mutual port calls and other activities, the PLAN has run bilateral or multilateral joint maritime exercises with the navies of India, France, the UK, Australia, Thailand, the US, Russia, Japan, New Zealand and Vietnam, focusing on tasks such as search-and-rescue, communication, formation sailing, diving, and escorting. In 2007 and 2009, the PLAN participated in multilateral joint maritime exercises organized by the Pakistani navy. In 2007, the PLAN took part in the joint maritime exercise held in Singaporean waters within the framework of the Western Pacific Naval Symposium. In 2010, China held a joint marine training with Thailand, the first ever between China and a foreign country.

Extensive joint military training on land has been carried out. China held a joint army training with Thailand in 2007, the first ever with a foreign country. In recent years, China has conducted joint military training with many countries, including Pakistan, India, Singapore, Mongolia, Romania and Thailand, focusing on tasks such as counter-terrorism, security and safeguarding, peacekeeping, and mountain and amphibious operations, all directed towards exploring new models of mixed grouping and joint training. In 2009, for the first time, China sent a medical detachment to Africa to hold a joint operation with Gabon, to conduct medical training and rescue exercises, and to provide medical assistance for local residents. In 2010, China sent a medical team to Peru for joint training on humanitarian medical aid and emergency medical rescue, in an effort to improve its capabilities in responding to humanitarian emergencies.

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