10/15/2009

China's early-warning aircraft appeared in public, unveiled the mysterious C4I system


Chinese C4I system is still mysterious

What is the C4I system? It refers to command, control, communications, computers and intelligence integration, has previously been used in the military field, it is the computer as the core, the integrated use of various information technology, the military and weapons command and control. C3I is a command, control, communications and intelligence abbreviation (Command, Contral, CommuniCation, intelligence) C4I is a plus in the former on the basis of a computer (Computer). So, China's C4I system, a mysterious do?

This year's 60th anniversary of National Day, early warning aircraft echelon parade first public appearance. Air Police and Air Police -200 2 -2.0 thousand Chinese-made early warning aircraft, respectively, as the leader lead plane echelon echelon lead aircraft and early warning aircraft, has over Tiananmen Square, the first public appearance to accept review. An overhead police in 2000 and the Air Force, "81" flight demonstration team of eight F-7GB escort machine wedge composed of nine aircraft team, team leader for the air echelon; two police -200 with the Air Force aerial air division composed of six F--11 two wedge team, for the air echelon of the second echelon. As a result, we can see, China's C4I systems.


Chinese C4I system is still mysterious

In the military field, C4I application is important. Although the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) enjoyed many successes over 50 years, there are command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) interoperability, should be recognized and corrected deficiencies. As NATO continues to modify its mission of collective security in Europe, the latest theory, these challenges the importance of C4I interoperability is growing. C4I interoperability is important because it is a binder, combined with the advanced business principles, which in turn is the theoretical basis. The existence of NATO's C4I interoperability challenges and actions during the Cold War in Bosnia and Kosovo courses. NATO's C4I interoperability challenges can be overcome by strengthening the Joint Task Force (Joint Task Force) concept, selected countries of the C4I capabilities to provide a framework for future combat commanders, to ensure that future member states in the appropriate C4I standardization of compliance with the agreements, and investment in the network-centric warfare (network-centric warfare). The future of NATO combat mission's success can be well defined in the settlement of C4I interoperability challenges placed on today's effort.

China's leadership has always been concerned about the modernization of the PLA's C4I systems. CMC has served as minister of electronics industry, he stressed: "Electronic technology on economic construction and defense communications plays a critical role." In the 1991 Gulf War, the leadership of the Central Military Commission further pointed out: "military electronic technology to the country Security has an important influence "and therefore" must be top priority. "

"Liberation Army Daily," an article published in 1997 revealed that the policy of the six core principles: (1) analog technology to digital technology change; (2) fiber optic cable to change; (3) Electrical and switched to a program-controlled exchange transformation; ( 4) single-function devices to multi-functional terminal change; (5) single-task network to multi-task network transformation; (6) manual to automation, and intelligent network management changes. "Liberation Army Daily" published an article in 1993, is much more specific, pointed out that the PLA is trying to develop based on fiber-optic cables, digital microwave and satellite communications C4I systems.

In 2000, the above-mentioned development strategy were added to some other reform principles, including: (a) static communication technology to mobile communication technology change; (2) ground-based and air communications technology to space-based communications technology change; (3) support communication technology to the command and control technology and information warfare, and technological change; (4) narrow-band communication network to the broadband communications network transformation; (5) regional or inter-regional communications network to a global communications network transformation; (6) dedicated military communication networks to the private and public integrated communication Network transformation; (7) military communications networks to military information network is changing. Seventh principle looked to traditional communications networks and high-performance computer networks convergence prospects.




Chinese C4I system is still mysterious

C4I system, the modernization of the PLA General Staff Communication Department from the specific organization and implementation, the Ministry responsible for the establishment, operation and protection of the People's Liberation Army's communications infrastructure. In 1999, the former General Staff Major General Communication Minister YUAN Bang roots in the "China Military Science" magazine has written that his department's main task is to lead telecommunications network construction, operation and security protection. In carrying out these tasks, the General Staff Department Communications Department has not been established with the U.S. similar to the sector corresponding to the organization, but rather to adopt a U.S. related to the functions of various government departments to be a comprehensive organization.

China Electronic Systems Engineering Corporation (CESEC) in the People's Liberation Army C4I-building play a crucial role, the company belongs to the General Staff Communication Department, its operations include mobile communications, telephone line security, computer networks, cryptography, microwave, computer application and special military C4I systems. CESEC to a large extent responsible for the design, integration and operation of the PLA's communications and computer networks, it is responsible for development of application software, and key Institute affiliated with the General Staff Department in close cooperation, specializing in C4I systems, microwave and password, the compilation of the research . More importantly, CESEC and their respective agencies and foreign communications companies have established close ties to China sourcing high-performance equipment provides an opportunity for information security.

In recent years, the PLA's focus on enhancing the information security research. This was initially limited to ensuring the safety of the scope of military information, and later gradually extended to China pose a clear threat to national security factors. Since 1999, the introduction of information technology on the Chinese hardware and software, will affect the national security debate, the PLA has been playing an important role in the military publications have emerged to explore a large number of related articles, and has repeatedly discussed the fact that well known that the United States developed by Intel, "Pentium" computer chip and Microsoft developed "Windows" operating system has the capacity to track features, such business data may be provided to "foreign political, economic and military institutions." This situation made the development of the Chinese military was worried, because "the PLA is currently in use by the majority of computer hardware and software are imported, some of which even came from Taiwan."

In sum, these articles emphasize the theme: "the use of foreign high-tech products will bring great danger to national security", and recommended the development of China's own information industry as the only "way of existence." The most important of these articles than the "Liberation Army Daily," January 11, 2000 titled "vigilance information colonialism phenomenon" in an editorial. The paper strongly criticized those who through "control" of information technology on China monopolistic exploitation of the country and called for a domestic alternatives to imported products. The editorial said: "If there is no independent information systems, there can be no true national independence," and boldly put forward the "military should be to defend the national information systems security as a new function."
China's military modernization is not an extremely important dramatic developments, an effort to construct space-based command, control, communications and intelligence of so-called control, communications, intelligence (C3I) systems, in order to win a high-tech local war for the future of preparation.

In fact, on the Gulf War by the Chinese military through the research, has long been recognized in micro-electronics technology as the core of the C3I system, has become the modern military weapons and equipment for the nerve center of high-tech strategy of the war security and material base. But more personal experience is an encounter in early 1995 Xiamou day, when China's southeast coast and hundreds of kilometers in depth of the radar and communications systems almost all the failures, simply did not know what happened in the end, Nanjing and Jinan Military Region Beijing General Staff of the wireless telecommunications contacts have also been unable to interfere with the work of chaos for several hours.

After the investigation, there were at E-6 E-3 aircraft took off from Japan and Naha Air Force Base, and has lingered in my airspace in the vicinity of short-lived, they left immediately. Has caused high-level Chinese military was shocked and deeply backward command and control system and its grave consequences, was thus determined to speed up the C3I system has invested heavily in modernization.

Over the years, China's military strategy to focus on homeland defense, to combat insider-based and prepared to fight a large-scale people's war, playing a worldwide nuclear war, therefore, control system requirements are relatively simple. However, with China's military strategic focus from inland to the ocean, from "preparing for heavy fighting, a nuclear war" to the transfer of high-tech local wars, border areas and southeast coastal areas outside the large-scale operations against the Chinese military's combat capability and C3I systems have raised new challenges.

In addition, China's "top priority" development of weapons systems, based on ballistic and cruise missiles as the core of the long-range precision attack capability. Which attack the basis for the use of combat power is the modern intelligence, navigation and communication, which means that C3I system. The Chinese military also has recognized that in the future that may occur in the Taiwan Strait or the South China Sea, local wars, the United States is likely to be a direct military intervention side. In particular, the United States Navy, from the Pacific and Indian Ocean at the same time pursuing a dual pincer attack on the Chinese military or blockade. For the time accurate information on the requirements of the U.S. aircraft carrier battle group movements seem more than ever, is more important and urgent. This could also be trading recently, after the Sino-Russian satellite intelligence implicit due to bar!

In such a situation, the role, China has been modernizing C3I system construction as a military one of the top priorities. In the weapons and equipment, the first is completed within this century, a modern C3I systems, China has also signed with Israel and Russia at a cost of one billion U.S. dollars has ordered four A-50 "Mainstay" (Mainstay) Airborne Early Warning Control Machine . The Airborne Warning and Control aircraft carrier platform for the Russian-made IL-76 large transport aircraft, airborne electronic equipment for the Israeli-developed high-performance next-generation phased-array early warning radar. According to Japan's "Asahi Shimbun," October 28, 1997 electricity, a same type of aircraft in the same year in August at the outskirts of the city of Shenyang, an Air Force base there. So far China and Russia can not be identified as cross-machine behavior.

However, to the 21st century, C3I systems, it is necessary to space development. Space satellite reconnaissance, communications, surveillance, navigation and positioning system as the core component of the C3I system will dominate the future battlefield destiny. In the reconnaissance and intelligence on the modern battlefield is vast, and fighting change rapidly, to master the battlefield dynamics of intelligence has become a key battle, while the traditional means of reconnaissance has been far from sufficient. Modern satellite technology Queshi a high degree of transparency of the battlefield, the formation of intelligence-gathering and navigation systems will enable commanders on the battlefield to keep abreast of developments have taken place anywhere, so that airplanes, tanks, warships and infantry are always aware of their own position could be any place with the upper command and stay in touch, and precision-guided weapons and to provide continuous and real time (realtime) long-term goal of information. In short, only through the deployment of satellite systems in space can be devised strategies to collect information and transmit information, the mobilization of forces and command operations. Therefore, the Chinese military experts not unreasonable to say that is precisely the foundation of modern C3I system, satellite, who mastered the space and satellite, grasps the initiative in war. * In order to establish a modern C3I systems, in recent years, China is implementing a very large space development projects, including not only the reconnaissance, communications, navigation, surveillance, meteorological satellite development, but also to the manned space and the space station with direction. Here are just a glimpse of this massive project.

"Know Baizhanbudai" intelligence war in ancient times to now are the most important task. People's Liberation Army has always been attention to intelligence gathering, in the past extensive use of a variety of means to collect intelligence on the ground, and rely heavily on people's power, that is the so-called "people's war." However, after a series of modern war, the PLA has a high mobility of modern warfare, large depth, and rich multi-variability with a deeper understanding of nature. The traditional means of ground reconnaissance has been no way to guarantee the requirements of modern warfare, intelligence, direction in space is the only way out.

China's development of space reconnaissance, more than 20 years of history. November 26, 1975, China successfully launched its first remote-sensing satellites, an official with the space surveillance capability. The end of 1996, China has launched 17 recoverable satellites, in addition to an out of control, the rest were successfully return. However, the overall level of China's space reconnaissance capability is still limited; an annual average of only launched a spy satellite, and satellite stay in orbit only 15 days, and reconnaissance means of a single, mainly for optical imaging, a resolution of 10 km feet. However, after years of effort, There has been a breakthrough recently developed electro-optical coupler sensor (ChargeCoupledDevice) digital camera, or CCD camera, the resolution of 1 meter. It is noteworthy that, CCD camera images in real-time information on the (realtime) transmission technology, after years of experiments have also made some progress. In other words, China's future electro-optical imaging satellite surveillance will be mainly on the ground and can receive real-time imaging information.

More importantly, China has also broken through the spaceborne synthetic aperture radar key technologies. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar technology is China's "863 research programs," one of the key projects, the overall prototype has been successfully developed several years ago. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar is an internationally developed in the 90's the most important means of Earth observation satellites, radar imaging technology is the key equipment, with the effects from weather and sunlight can penetrate clouds and even surface and vegetation, detected ability to hide the target is underground. This all-weather, 24 hours, with the perspective radar capabilities for the reconnaissance of the most advanced military equipment. The early 90s, China had developed airborne synthetic aperture radar and real-time image transmission processor, and successfully conducted a high-altitude surveillance radar imaging of Earth, as well as radar images of right and immediate transfer.

China has also developed a very large space dedicated real-time control of computer systems. According to reports, the computer system as the China first reached the international advanced level, its small size, weighing only 5.8 kilograms, for multi-mode real-time reconnaissance satellite remote sensing technology, key equipment. In addition, China and multi-spectral infrared satellite surveillance technology also has been tremendous progress, while continuing to enhance the development of electronic surveillance and a breakthrough will undoubtedly make strategic and tactical intelligence-gathering ability to obtain increased significantly.

Future high-tech war is against the system and the system as a whole, the battle system on the system, any one of various services and arms are only a certain stage in the battle, season, and actions play a leading role, and they are listening to part of the combat system (sub - system), only through the various levels of the subsystems C3I organically as a single entity in order to play most of the fighting in the overall function. C3I focuses on access to information transmission (communication), treatment, evaluation, selection and display.

Information technology pervades all kinds of weapons and equipment into combat means and operational command and to form the network they are connected into one. During the Gulf War, the U.S. military and multinational forces effectively and C3I special role in the war: the use of a variety of reconnaissance and surveillance means, implementation of a comprehensive information security: the establishment of efficient networks orders to ensure timely delivery of information, contact smooth stability, command center three-dimensional configuration.

China's C4I how the system? The 60th anniversary of National Day military parade, early warning aircraft echelon first public appearance; various branches of the military cooperation, is a showcase of the exercise the certificates; there is "Crossing -2,009": a new era of new military transformation drills. The theater army's first joint training in the Jinan Military Region, the lead agency official run, indicating that our military taking the co-ordinating joint and combined arms training in the theater substantial progress. The future development of international hostile forces, the Western States have been on the modernization of the PLA's C4I systems to predict. In other words, the PLA will continue to build a modern digital higher degree of automation, security, high-speed, enhancing safety and broadband infrastructure. Future high-tech war is against the system and the system as a whole, system the contest on the system; also increasingly shown the importance of C4I systems; From this point of view, you will gradually unveiled the mystery of China's C4I systems. The Chinese army has the confidence, ability and courage to kill all the invading enemies!

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