China's senior test pilot: "Battle of China, and what kind of aircraft"

Ten years ago, I made friends with several Navy pilots. As the needs of the joint flight, Ding Yi, Jia Yue to several other Navy pilots joined the J-H-7 aircraft flight test team. They are the Navy's first "Flying Leopard" fighter pilot, is also a joint test of the pioneers of naval air.

"Flying Leopard" as the first multi-function domestic medium attack aircraft (although it is named J-bombers), and its naval air force equipped with special significance for China. Double, long-range, large payload and excellent empty, empty surface combat capability, "Flying Leopard" has all the characteristics of the aircraft by nearly all naval aviation needs most. Although from a technical perspective, the "Flying Leopard" can only be regarded as second generation of aircraft, but its comprehensive operational efficiency and in the traditional sense of the second generation is quite different. As the "Flying Leopard" round out equipment, the Chinese naval air power has been greatly enhance.

Time flies, "Flying Leopard" naval installation has passed the first ten years, over ten years, while twinkling of an eye, the world situation and national power of naval equipment, great changes have taken place.

July 28, 2009, U.S. Navy Admiral Gary Roughead, chief of operations declared: "F-35C fighter planes represent the highest level of the same!" Lockheed Martin assembly plant as the curtain slowly opened, "the fate of many舛 "the Navy F-35C has finally been officially unveiled, and this indicates a new round of Navy fighters about to heat up the competition.

Here, the focus of public opinion seems to have focused on the F-35C of the carrier function, and the development of the Navy shore-based aviation equipment contrary rarely talked about. This just want to talk about this seemingly "popular" one.

The pursuit of national defense forces and naval air

In fact, I am concerned about this force is not because the cooperation of the Navy pilot. The end of 2008, air refueling in the study, I examined a large number of before and after World War II long-range raid information. I published in 2008 by the end of the "struggle between hard and soft air refueling", the first reference is the "Matterhorn" plan wars. I was "Matterhorn" Scheme A huge and tragic wars World War II, moved, while being moved, leaving a deep thought. Attack on Pearl Harbor, Midway, Coral Sea battle, captured the Mariana Islands, and the bombing of Tokyo, from the brutality of the Pacific War and its great influence on the outcome of World War II behind, I read the warring sides pursuit for the Naval Aviation . I seem to draw such a conclusion: for a country, to establish what kind of maritime air power, is not what his abilities but what he has to pursue!

For the early 20th century world powers, such as terms from the traditional strength of the British sea power is undoubtedly the most powerful country. Although in 1910 and 1911, the Americans realized Youjinyili first carrier take-off and landing of mankind, but the world's first aircraft carrier in 1918, was built by the British "100 Giants." Early 20th century, the Japanese shipbuilding technology with the Chinese were all introduced from the West; the Americans nor European countries is so "lucky" to be in a naval battle in their own temper. In 1921, the Italian Douhet wrote, "air supremacy", Japan and the U.S. seem to not have the same level of strategic thinkers. However, the true interpretation of World War I was by "insight" is precisely the so-called latecomers - the United States and Japan. After a brief peace, the Eurasian powers seem to have foreseen the coming of the next war, however, be prepared for the sea, only Japan and the United States. Despite Stalin foresaw the importance of the war for the future aircraft carrier, and ordered the aircraft carrier technology research and development began, the sponsors of the German World War II can be described as fully prepared, but the sudden and unexpected outbreak of World War II, only Japan and the United States established a strong aircraft carrier fleet, the Pacific sea and air shopping unavoidable in between these two maritime powers began.

Interpretation of history we see often is the result, but I am more concerned about is the results before the arrival of the pursuit of those powers. Opened a biography, "Admiral Yamamoto", I clearly see after the First World War, Japan and the U.S. Naval Air Development track.

20 years of last century, though with the British aircraft carrier catapult take-off, "White-eyed giant," has come out, but countries are still focusing on the Navy in the manufacture of large-scale super battleship, the aircraft carriers and naval aviation is only seen as a supplementary force, envisaged to use it to cover battleships, cruisers, also charged in the sea, but the Americans 比利米切尔 has seen the importance of air power for the Navy. July 1921, in Mitchell's repeated suggestion, the U.S. Navy surface ships were on the bombing trial, Mitchell tried to test to prove his idea, despite the test results were a sensation, but Navy officials are still rigid ignore the Mitchell's point of view, this, Mitchell angrily left the Naval Air Force.

The other side of the ocean, the Japanese naval officer Admiral Yamamoto during the same thought. After the First World War in Asia, Japan and the United States increasingly open ocean competition, faced with the enormous mountain of the United States is full of pessimism. After several years of commuting in Europe and America, he suddenly found the inspiration, "Aviation victory" is the only in Asia, Japan and the United States a means of protest, he believes that "maritime operations in the future will mainly depend on the aircraft." He became an avid aviation enthusiast. In 1923, Japan built the world's first aircraft carrier, a formal "Fengxiang" No.. In 1924, Yamamoto chose but he craves a completely unfamiliar environment - Kasumigaura Naval Air Force, Navy, Air Force officially became Kasumigaura Deputy Chief and director of education. Seize every opportunity to learn about his knowledge of aviation and 40 years old completed his solo life for the first time the air.

In 1925, Jimmy Doolittle driving a U.S. Curtis R3C-2 aircraft in the race to win races, the average speed of 232.5 miles. April 1942, is the Doolittle B-25 bombers led group, completed the World War II on the first bombing of the Japanese homeland.

In 1926, a second mission to the United States Yamamoto. In 1927, the fanaticism of the "air victory," wrote Mitchell, American advocates of the "Air Defense," a book. The book deeply touched the nerve Yamamoto, now, Yamamoto's "aviation winning" ideas have been developed to "air the first" high. March 1928, Admiral Yamamoto ended his career in the United States naval attache, returned to Japan, he first served as cruiser "Isuzu" was captain, and immediately after transfer, "Akagi" aircraft carrier captain, he finally well according to our plans began to build Japan's naval aviation. Thus, Yamamoto took the "brilliant" but life is full of tragic sea, but also left a lot of stunning 20th century sea air cases.

Here, I do not want to go repeat the Pacific naval air combat in the tragic scenes. People in the study and reflection on Pearl Harbor, Midway, the Marianas campaign when the famous naval battle, always has repeatedly stressed the importance of aircraft carriers of the sea, but through the sea, I read it is to the sea islands to Japan and the U.S. The bloody battle, the sea base in the Pacific War's most important strategic resource.

1940 U.S. Navy has a very significant move, that is, the original home base in the U.S. West Coast to the Pacific Fleet deployed in the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Pearl Harbor, this action with the U.S. Pacific Fleet about the distance between mainland Japan son to reduce the thousands of nautical miles.

December 8, 1941, Admiral Yamamoto led the attack on Pearl Harbor the Japanese aircraft carrier fleet, the United States four battleships were sunk, including four battleships and three cruisers, including 15 ships were damaged, 311 aircraft were destroyed, the main U.S. Pacific Fleet battleships were basically lost combat capability.

April 18, 1942, carrying 16 B-25B bomber, "Hornet" squadron, came to the sea 500 nautical miles from Japan, as Tu Yu Japanese fishing boat "Nitto Maru", the first Japanese native forced to launch a bombing in advance. 8:15, Colonel Doolittle flew off first. The creative action and not to the Japanese bombing of the strategic objectives of how much damage, the absence of shore-based naval base as a backup, not in the B-25B aircraft carrier landing was shot down two bombers addition, a plane is miraculous landed in the Soviet Union, Vladivostok (Vladivostok) 60 km north of the airport, on the other fighters are damaged in the landing. This is called "Ten famous twentieth century air" of the bombing caused great repercussions in the international arena, however, Lt. Col. Doolittle appears the operation was a total failure, but no shore-based naval air force base direct cause of the failure of this operation. The next home from the sea, the bombing of Japan was after a lapse of more than two years later in November 1944, as the U.S. Navy occupied the Marianas Islands, declared end of World War II the Japanese bombing of Tokyo, began.

In my view, the Pacific naval strategy turn is not the real Battle of Midway, but in June 1944 Battle of the Marianas. The battle, Japan lost 92% of the carrier-based naval air force, which led to the failure of the campaign an important reason, it is the low quality of the Japanese naval air force pilots, after several years of the Pacific War, the Japanese pilot trained consumption depleted. And because of intelligence failures judge, stationed in the Mariana Islands, the Japanese shore-based aviation was transferred to New Guinea Islands, the Japanese air force is extremely weak, is the Japanese defeat in the Battle of the important reasons. Coincidentally, that year, "Air Defense," a book on the personal involvement of American General Mitchell directed the operations. With the fall of the Mariana Islands, Japan, fully exposed to the local community in the United States B-29 bombers in the attack range, waiting for the Japanese is from the spring of 1945 has been extended to July's bombing of Tokyo.

Recalling the Pacific during World War II naval battle, we can easily see that the focus of the two warring sides compete for the Navy, is an important strategic value of the island, while the Navy's air forces in the war played a key role. With the Japanese Navy was defeated in an islands occupied by U.S. troops, waiting for the outcome of Japan's only failure was.

What kind of Chinese naval aircraft

Compared to the rapid development of world air forces, naval aviation's development in the emergence of a very uneven situation. The establishment of a small number of maritime power to the aircraft carrier from the shore, from the reconnaissance anti-submarine to sea attacks from the sea to the offshore operations far from home to a large overseas-based naval air power system, while most countries and even many military power of the naval air force is relatively weak a few countries have aircraft carriers, fleet forces very thin. Air power at sea is extremely unbalanced situation seems to be accepted with all major powers, which in the military field is a special case. When the individual powers in the various regions of the world's oceans reach of frequent moves, when a number of other military powers still in the development of naval aviation for the future indecisive. While some countries are full of ambition to carry out a trial of aircraft technology and equipment, but the United States and a few big powers nothing compared to the sea air Li Liang is quite different. The construction of naval aviation strategy for the future pattern of cost and uncertainty of making difficult decisions in all countries the construction of costly inputs.

China's naval air force has been nearly 60 years of development. June 1952, the first aviation division in Shanghai, marking the official birth of naval air forces. To the end of 1955, naval air force already has 515 aircraft of various types, basically set up a shore-based air defense system of sea and air operations. In the national air defense operations, the People's Navy pilot shot down by the United States created a brilliant B-29 bombers wars. January 3, 1980, the first landing with the Navy's ship-borne helicopters success achieved by the shore-based naval aviation breakthrough to the carrier. 90's of last century, "Flying Leopard" fighter-bombers, electronic reconnaissance, anti-submarine aircraft, early warning patrol aircraft, aerial refueling fielded forces, naval aviation expanded range of activities, and to seize command of the sea surface Navy laid a comprehensive support. January 2009 "issued by China's National Defense in 2008" white paper pointed out that the naval air force has developed a sea attack aircraft, air combat forces on behalf of, with reconnaissance, anti-submarine and air defense capability.

However, it must recognize that our naval air forces are relatively weak, and the growing power of marine interests disproportionate. We already established in some countries around the aircraft carrier force, China has no aircraft carriers. Currently, the world's military powers generally considered the fourth generation machines and equipment, and our three generations of the Navy only a few machines and equipment. Carrier force in the planning of development, how to shore-based naval air forces to upgrade, we must face. Here the existing equipment and technology development, and there are targets of choice, but spilled in the development of the Chinese navy's proposal, most of the light is made for the U.S. Navy air force.

U.S. Navy aircraft equipment are mostly independent of the Air Force's self-made, but the phenomenon does not seem widespread in the world. As a military power, Russia's naval air force planes were powered by the models, the so-called naval aircraft type only on the basis of the Air Force make the appropriate minor changes, this phenomenon is in some other military powers are very common. Thus, we can not help but think such a question, the U.S. experience of universal significance, affecting the construction of naval air forces What is the principal contradiction in the end? States on this issue seems to have their own needs and ideas.

The late 70s of last century, Iran wants an Air Force fighter planes from the United States, Iran's military and political officials in the American variety of aircraft inspection, the surprise choice of the U.S. F-14 fighters. This is of course the U.S. propaganda developers factors, however, Iran's national conditions and considerations around the strategic situation, they choose F-14 is also an important reason. Development of a new type of aircraft in the cost of moving the billions of dollars of today, specifically for the independent development of a Navy fighter is unbearable in many national economies, not to say that no independent research capacity of the State. In fact, the most important fighters for the Navy is the navy is not the type, but whether it can meet the needs of maritime defense.

The main task of the Navy aircraft operations at sea, either at sea or sea offensive defense, air and surface attack ship attack capability is its most important function. The so-called Air Force fighters, as long as the surface has a strong air attack capability, with high-performance sensors for naval warfare and special weapons, they can be used for maritime operations. Therefore, the one-sided that the Air Force combat air weapons can not be used for sea view is unfair. Navy fighters in air combat capability is an important indicator. Low air to air combat capability the aircraft is unable to meet the future needs of naval warfare. The Navy fighters, in addition to attack outside the high seas mobile operations is essential. For example, the U.S. Navy's F-14, F/A-18 fighter are medium-sized twin, all have range far and strong mobility features, therefore, air-defense type of the light combat aircraft is not suitable for naval use. Survivability is an important indicator of the Navy fighter. Compared with conventional air, sea combat survivability of the aircraft put forward higher requirements for sea rescue difficult jump, the pilot survived highly unlikely, therefore, the Navy fighter redundancy in the system design with special requirements. In addition, because the sea is more difficult operational coordination, multi-purpose combat aircraft for a higher performance requirements.

With the J-10 aircraft equipped with stereotypes, the Chinese air force to speed up the pace of three generations of machine dress up. The small amount of imports in addition to the three generations of Navy aircraft and bombers continued to dress up the F-7A aircraft, there are a lot of second-generation warplanes continue to use. The prototype made its second generation are the mid-60s last century, the development project, its design largely empty high-altitude high-speed combat aircraft. Later, made its second generation with a radar sensor though, and to add a corresponding empty, empty surface weapons. But because these fighters are mostly developed by Air Force fighters, air and sea attacks to their relatively weak, and these aircraft's fire control system are mostly traditional, small arms attack, attack accuracy is also lower, deal with the complicated electromagnetic environment weak, no longer meet the modern naval warfare environment, the Navy's Dress urgent second-generation warplanes.

Nowadays, the demand for naval air operations, the three generations of aircraft to use existing domestic remodeling is a more appropriate program. Three generations of machine-made in the design concept focused empty operations, electronic warfare environment, and integrated air-surface attack operational efficiency, and a strong air to air attacks and self-defense capability, and in the air side (especially the sea air) attack capability, as with the advanced sensors, and powerful integrated fire control system, so long as to add a sophisticated air-sea assault weapons, could become an excellent sea combat aircraft. In view of the status of naval aviation equipment, aircraft equipment because the number of significantly less than the Air Force, so the plane should not use multiple choice options on the program, but the election should be fully demonstrated its good, so for equipment maintenance and operational use are good . For the next generation of fighter Navy research and development, should learn from foreign experience, situation, combined with strength and China's military and technological needs of Naval Operations to seriously carry out the research project. Meanwhile, three generations of computer technology in the existing situation is more mature, appropriate equipment, the three generations of fighters the Navy and naval aviation training continuously upgrade the combat capabilities of military transformation is a need to build the new period is needed to win future wars .

In summary, carefully study the future needs of naval operations, Navy future aircraft design requirements proposed, development of new naval aircraft is the new topics in the defense industry. Meanwhile, for China's national conditions and future needs of naval warfare, use of existing and under development in the Air Force fighters, modified to become the Navy fighters, is coming for a long time an important strategy for the construction of naval equipment. China's national defense strategy of the future construction of naval equipment is always the most important benchmark. China's navy is the far sea, deep blue development, national marine interests of the naval air force construction of the expansion to a higher demand. China's naval air force equipment, long way to go.

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