The United States has that drive the door, the ABM is a compulsory subject to strengthen China

The middle ground-based missile defense system the United States (GMD) of the core component is produced by Raytheon EKV (outside the atmosphere of anti-device)

January 11, 2010 20:58:46 Xinhua News Agency on the network broadcast a Flash: China 11 at the territory of the middle of a land-based anti-missile interception technology test, test to achieve the desired purpose. This test is defensive in nature, not directed against any country.

Although this is a very short news, but reveals a wealth of information. The first is the "ABM", China's January 11, 2007 conducted an anti-satellite test, while the anti-satellite missile than the technical difficulty is much higher, indicating the technological level of China's defense industry to a new level. "Domestic" and "land-based" shows the range of dummy does not exceed the size of China's territory, it should be a medium-range missiles. The focus of this article describes is the "middle."

What is a mid-block?

The following figures are based on discussions with intercontinental ballistic missiles, and its flight is divided into three phases.

The first stage rocket motor from the missile body to promote flight up until the last one engine shut down, separating warheads and engines. "Encyclopedia of China • aviation and aerospace volumes," this stage, known as "active section," foreign referred to as "boost phase", "ascending." This phase started from the engine ignition timing for 3 to 5 minutes, because the burning rate of solid rocket motor wide, active segment of time shorter than the liquid-propellant rocket. Active segment at the end with the final stage of the missile warhead separated from its engine, this time a height of 150 ~ 400 km, velocity is about 7 km / sec. In the active section of the missile the same time by the engine thrust, the Earth's gravity and atmospheric drag effect.

The second stage is the middle part is the warhead alone in outer space flight, its first increase in trajectory, the latter reached the highest point of a gradual decline, until access to the dense atmosphere. "Encyclopedia of China • aviation and aerospace volumes," this stage, known as "free flight segment", Xinhua news using the "middle" is probably intended to make it easier for foreign readers to understand. This phase lasted approximately 25 minutes, to an elliptical orbit on the part of the orbit space flight, the ellipse semi-major axis of 3186 km ~ 6372 km, the highest point of the flight trajectory height of approximately 1200 km. In the middle of the end of the part of the warheads would be exposed to the dense atmosphere, known as the re-entry. Ballistic missile re-entry angle close to 90 degrees, which is almost perpendicular to the ground headlong into the atmosphere. Mid-flight warhead only by the Earth's gravitation. A lot of penetration measure is initiated in the middle, such as multiple independently targetable missiles, each bullet separated from the release of such false targets. But also in the middle part of the missile launch control engine Trajectory Correction.

The final stage is the re-entry, but also known as the last paragraph. The starting point of the last paragraph of about 100 km from the ground, the flight time of 2 minutes, landing speed of about 4 km / sec.

Characteristics of the three-phase intercept

Ballistic missiles in active, middle and terminal have different characteristics, we must adopt a different approach in order to intercept.

In the active section of the engine to sustain its ballistic missiles, its bright, high-temperature flame is the obvious target for the tail, using space-based or space-based infrared detectors can be easily found that its early warning, identification and targeting are relatively easy. And ballistic missiles can not be taken at this stage to release the bait, mobility measures such as penetration. However, the duration of this phase is short, may not be sufficient to complete discovery, identification, decision-making, implementation of the interception process. The United States approach is to intercept bombs with ships, aircraft, ballistic missiles may be deployed to the distance from the vicinity of the launch site and shorten the flight distance of interceptor. However, this approach can only be used for North Korea, Iran and other land is relatively small rivals, can not deal with China, Russia, this vast country in depth.

Mid-block has the advantage of fighting a long time and can compare the leisurely discovery, identification, decision-making, intercept and, more importantly, the middle of combat to intercept vast depth, and even across the whole continent or the ocean, you can choose to block points more calmly. In this way, can be intercepted warheads of nuclear biological and chemical pollutants on the relatively safe position in crashed into the atmosphere and burned, there is no burn some will fall into the no man's land, will not cause harm. As the depth of large, mid-block need to use long-distance, large volume of interceptors, but also has a high-power, high-resolution long-range radar, the incoming warheads from space garbage, distinguish bait corresponding to high-speed computing supercomputers. However, because of long range interceptor missile, motor ability, and can be quite extensive coverage of a small amount of interceptor area.
Because of this, 12, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu at a regular press conference that the test does not produce residual orbit of space debris in orbit, the spacecraft will not pose a threat to the security. The principle of which is easily explained, ballistic missiles are generally not reached the first cosmic speed and direction of velocity is not parallel to the Earth's surface, it will not fly into orbit around the Earth. The Interceptor is roughly from the front of the collision as a dummy ballistic missile, according to the principle of conservation of momentum, the two fly around the speed will be a sharp decline, even if the debris flying out of the universe will never be first rate. Therefore, the collision of all debris will be quickly plunged into the atmosphere. Available this time, all the fragments have been reduced to ashes.
Have to wait for the end of the missile interceptor was imposed after the entry into the atmosphere. The advantage is the interceptor missile's flight distance is short, so you can use smaller, lighter in the booster rocket; and warheads will be commonly used in balloon-type bait under the sharp deceleration in the atmospheric drag can no longer cover real warheads; the end of the distance on the ground due to the more near, the role of the guidance radar distance demand is relatively low. However, blocking the end of the combat time is tight, in less than 30 seconds of time to complete all procedures; intercept incoming warheads, bombs, and is opposite the flight, the relative high speed of the interceptor missile's guidance and control requirements were very demanding; end of the interception system The scope of protection is small, generally only to protect a city or a base. In addition, the ballistic missile has entered the defensive end of the normal side of the territory, even if the warheads had been destroyed, her possession of nuclear biological and chemical substances will be falling within the scope of the defensive side, a considerable disadvantage.
China is a vast country with large population, big country, targets many fronts long. If we engage in defensive end, just protect the municipalities and provincial capital cities is necessary to the deployment of dozens of sets of systems economy can not afford, to protect all the country's key objectives is even more impossible. In addition, China has no troops stationed overseas, it is difficult to deploy active segment interception system. Use as little as possible if China were to achieve funding for missile defense, the middle block is a more reasonable choice. The United States had such technology in the study that the Boeing company's "Ground-based Midcourse Defense" (GMD) weapon systems.

The atmosphere inside and outside the atmosphere

The United States is the world's most emphasis on anti-ballistic missile of the country, so China's anti-missile testing immediately responded. 12, according to the Associated Press reported that a Pentagon spokesman said: "We have not received prior notification of missile tests to be carried out," "We have detected from two different locations-launched missiles and a space outside the atmosphere and impact. We are inquiries to the Chinese side of the interceptor test purposes and to deploy interceptor system of China's future intentions and plans. "

The U.S. military statement circumstantial evidence of China's anti-missile test success. The wording of the "outer atmosphere," the word, but also proved that China is indeed carried out in the middle of the block. The so-called "outer atmosphere," is actually in English "Exoatmospheric", translated as "outside the atmosphere," more appropriate. Based on the foregoing paragraphs of the definition of ballistic missiles, middle and "the atmosphere outside the" basic is one thing.

GMD on the part of the atmosphere outside the United States defense, while the Articles have been reported "theater high-altitude missile defense" system is the atmosphere inside and outside the two kinds of operational modes.

About GMD

I can not know the details of the Chinese interceptor weapons systems, but the principle from the GMD and composition to the middle of a rough description interception technology.

GMD is a U.S. national missile defense part of a strategy by the U.S. Army responsible for airborne forces to help. GMD system is the general contractor, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, its main sub-systems, including anti-personnel device outside the atmosphere (EKV), ground-based interceptor (GBI, that is, the EKV into space in the multistage rocket launchers) and its launch Well system, combat command, control and communications systems for the improved early warning, "pave the way" radar, and for guidance in advance X-band radar. X-band radar mounted on a Russian-made semi-submersible oil drilling platform, deployed near the island of Adak in Alaska. The U.S. military said that if necessary, which Taiwan can motorized giant radar in any sea area to the Pacific.

GBI length 16.8 meters, diameter of 1.27 meters, takeoff weight of 12.7 tons with a range of 2000 km.
GMD from 1999 to 2008 conducted a total of 14 intercept tests, of which 8 were successful; carried out 17 non-intercept flight tests, of which 15 were successful; carried out a second radar system test a success. In other words, the Chinese in this area for 10 years behind the United States a little more time.
At present the United States has deployed in two locations GMD - Alaska Army base at Fort Grille and California Air Force Base, Vanden reported. The United States had intended to deploy in Poland, GMD, but it caused the United States, Russia and a heated argument between, in September 2009 abolished.
GMD huge cost, the current projected total cost of the development and deployment of 30.7 billion U.S. dollars. But such defense-related research has always been to be overrun. United States General Accounting Office now estimates that its cost overrun of at least 1.5 billion dollars.

About EKV

GMD is a core component of Raytheon's EKV. EKV installed in the GBI's head, the core component is a large-aperture infrared homing head. Missiles fly out to be the basic atmosphere, the fairing to protect the EKV separated from the command system at this time the ground radar-guided data continuously sent to the EKV. EKV launch its own propulsion system to the incoming warhead around. Band into the infrared seeker to the role of distance, to detect incoming warheads, EKV into the terminal guidance process, from the shells on the computer algorithm to adjust according to intercept the flight direction and attitude, until the collision with the incoming warhead so far. EKV no explosive warhead could be entirely relying on its own kinetic energy to destroy warheads.

EKV all the hardware and software, such as the infrared seeker head, attitude control engines, heading control engines, communications systems, ballistic calculation software on the computer and other shells have high technology content, to date only the United States and China on its own The successful development of such weapons. Japan's "standard" -3 interceptor missiles on the kinetic energy anti-device (KKV) was developed with technical assistance from the United States. EKV weight 64 kilograms, length 1.4 m, diameter 0.6 m, flight speed of about 10 km / sec.

EKV is extremely expensive, the U.S. military in 1998 to determine the purchase price is 20 million ~ 25 million U.S. dollars. In accordance with the management of arms procurement, this figure is now definitely a lot higher.

India's missile defense is to intercept the middle do?

India had claimed over three times the successful implementation of anti-missile intercept tests. India has two types of anti-missile missiles. The first is "Earth"-II short-range ballistic missile modified for the "Earth" anti-aircraft missile (PAD), India would be classified as extra-atmospheric anti-missile systems. The other is the "advanced air defense" system (AAD), part of the atmosphere to intercept weapons.

India had announced in November 2006, with a PAD intercepted another one "The Good Earth"-II missiles, intercept altitude of 50 km. Interceptor based radar data provided by mid-flight amendment to the last paragraph with active radar guidance. However, India does not indicate the test is active, middle or the last paragraph of the intercept. Some media said the two bombs less than 100 km away from the launch point, the judge is active segment to intercept.

March 6, 2009, India announced that a PAD has a successful intercept tests, target missiles launched from a ship is one of the "armbrustschutzen" missile (the "Prithvi" missile naval type). But the Indian side, said 这枚 "armbrustschutzen" simulated the range of 1,500 km ballistic missile. PAD at 75 km height to intercept the target.

However, India is quite suspicious of these statements. PAD Indian side did not reveal the type of warhead, but India's scientific research strength, there is no possible development of a EKV type of interceptors. "The Good Earth"-II range is only 250 km, not as long-range anti-aircraft missiles; the shot high and only 80 kilometers, only to arrive near the space, strictly speaking, can not be regarded as extra-atmospheric interceptors. And "Earth"-II engine, or the last century, 50,60 age technology, do not have the necessary anti-missile interceptors hard phases of acceleration and high-speed flight performance. More important is that the "earth"-II used as a liquid rocket engine, the fuel filling process before the launch complex and lengthy, does not meet outgoing interceptor on duty at any time request. Army fans have joked that the other side of the warheads were landed, PAD may also increase the fuel. "The Good Earth"-II itself, the reliability is not high, whether it qualified as a short-range missiles are a problem. Based on the modified block in their shells, some concepts can only test of the basic model can not be.

PAD system has been the technical support of Israel, its "Swordfish" long-range tracking radar is the "Arrow" missile defense system -2 "Green Pine" radar-derived. India referred to as "Swordfish" role distance of 600 km, intended to bring them up to 1,500 km. But the Israeli side of the information, said the study of the "Green Pine" improved "Super Green Pine" role in the distance is only 800 ~ 900 km. Israel's weapons have been famous at the time, but revealed numerous problems in recent years, its exports of India's "PHALCON" early-warning aircraft is almost not work. "Swordfish" radar can exceptions, India's improvement plan could be achieved is questionable.


Anti-missile interceptor system is a high-input technology, without adequate funding can not encroach into the. But for China, it is the same as with other high-tech defense is to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity of a required course. A few years ago, the United States with a missile defense as a tool, repeated pressure on China, and even repair early-warning radar to China's doorstep. January 11, 2010 the test success, not only proved the wisdom of our scientific research personnel, also shows that today's unprecedented national strength of China's strong, there is sufficient manpower, material and financial resources to study the most sophisticated defense technology. The United States itself but because the financial crisis, had to drastically reduce a lot of advanced equipment in development funding. I am afraid this is the so-called "counter-balance."

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