3/27/2009

China military power report 2009 selection: before 2015, China resorts to arms not outward ability

China military force report 2009 selection: before 2015, China resorts to arms not outward ability


The United States in 2009 China Military Power Report attached: the PLA schematic diagram of the arms modernization

The United States on the 25th afternoon local time, the U.S. Defense Department released the 2009 annual "China Military Power Report," Assessment of China's military development jump. This article extracts the contents of the report of the United States military.
Chapter III: People's Liberation Army modernization objectives and trends
The "information into a national defense and military modernization development direction, based on military conditions, and actively promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, scientific formulate national defense and army building, strategic planning, service development strategy, by 2010 to lay a solid foundation, the basic implementation by 2020 mechanization and informationization construction progress has been made in the middle of 21st century national defense and military modernization achieve the goal. "
- Excerpt from "China's National Defense in 2008"
Overview
Chinese leaders have indicated their intention and the allocation of resources for a wide range of military reform, including raising the overall degree of specialization, improve the training level, a more realistic joint military exercises and speed up procurement and the development of a modern conventional weapons and nuclear weapons. People's Liberation Army seems to focus on the construction have to stop the combat capability of Taiwan independence and to ensure that the time delay to ensure that the war in Beijing can force Taiwan to the negotiating table. In addition, the Chinese are also available for the establishment of a wider regional and global combat capability of the power of the foundation.
American intelligence agencies estimated that China will need at least a decade to create a rival to beat middle-scale modernization of the armed forces. 2015 to the local Chinese do not have the projection of small-scale foreign military units and supports its overseas operations capacity; As regards the projection of large-scale military forces overseas and to support its combat operations capabilities, the next decade it is expected to become a reality. People's Liberation Army will continue to face adverse cross-sectoral collaboration, joint exercises and the lack of practical experience in combat operations flaws. To recognize these deficiencies, Chinese leaders emphasize the use of their own advantages and weaknesses of a potential enemy, the development of defeating the enemy be able to "trump card" projects (such as space for confrontation and network warfare project).
Anti-access / area denial capability development
Respond to unexpected events in the Taiwan Strait as part of the plan, the People's Liberation Army has been giving priority to the development to prevent or counter third-party intervention in the Taiwan Strait crisis forces combat capability, and continue to strengthen measures aimed at preventing a third party in the western Pacific military deployment (Anti-intervention) or operations ( regional blockade) capacity. In this context, China's anti-intervention / regional capacity-building blockade has been continuously enriched overlap, can be used to become the sea, sky, space and cyberspace attacks on the implementation of multiple combat systems.
Analysis of the current and planned reform of the forces can be seen that the Chinese are seeking to overcome the dangerous ships arrive to ensure that the "second island chain" of multi-level combat capability. One direction is to integrate from CSS-5 (DF-21) on the development of the basic anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM), for global positioning and tracking of the goal C4ISR systems, and terminal homing guidance system, to attack the enemy side surface ships. As the Chinese Second Artillery Corps in 2004 published an authoritative article said, ASBM can use the "terminal-sensitive sub-penetrating missile" to "destroy the enemy's ship-borne aircraft, control tower and other easily damaged important goal." This capacity is particularly important, will enable Chinese in the region to take pre-emptive crisis or a tough selection.
Chinese military analysts also consider, taking into account the Transport Co-ordination, communications and logistical complexity of the network requirements, logistics support and wartime mobilization will become the major weaknesses of modern warfare. China may take advantage of short-range / medium-range ballistic missiles, land - attack cruise missile (LACM), special combat units and computer network attack to threaten or attack enemy bases. And its access to air attack plane at the case of come on, you can launch long-range goal is equipped with a variety of end-guided warheads on land attack cruise missiles.
China's emerging regional naval blockade capacity - mines, submarines, maritime attack aircraft and anti-ship cruise missiles equipped with advanced modern surface combat units, achieve their long-range maritime anti-access operations to build a multi-layered defense system. Procurement and development of Chinese Kilo class, Song-class, business class and meta-class submarines, also showed that China's rising through the underwater warfare to achieve regional naval blockade. Over the past decade, China has deployed more than a new type of ship. Purchased from Russia two new modern-II class missile destroyers and self-made long-range anti-ship cruise missiles and equipment Luyang-I/II-based guided missile destroyer, it indicates that China continue to emphasize flexibility in combining a wide range of air control to enhance anti-ship combat capability .

People's Liberation Army is currently a serious lack of strategic transport
Aerial application of anti-intervention / regional blockade selection of weapons, including surface-to-air series (SAMs), such as HQ-9, SA-10, SA-20 (It is reported that possession of a limited number of ballistic missiles and cruise missile defense capability), as well as a range of was the increase in SA-20PMU2; Beijing will also use Russian-made or domestic fourth-generation fighters (such as -27 and Su Su -30 plane for various models, as well as domestically produced F-10 multi-purpose fighter) to fight for dominance in the air; the People's Liberation Army Navy will be using the equipment of the Russian anti-ship missile AS-17/Kh-31A Su-30MK2 fighters and FB-7 fighter-bombers to carry out maritime interdiction mission; from abroad of air refueling, such as the Russian IL -78, will be expanded People's Liberation Army Air Force and Navy fighter planes equipped with precision missiles operational range, thus increasing the Chinese away from the coastline for ground and air forces, bases and logistical hub of the threat. In addition, the long-range unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and unmanned combat aircraft of the introduction and development, including Israel's Harpy unmanned aerial vehicles, also increased the Chinese long-distance reconnaissance and attack selection.
Anti-access / area denial strategy to another battlefield are the electromagnetic and the field of information warfare. People's Liberation Army authors often works in modern warfare emphasize "control information" (sometimes referred to as "the interception of information" or "information dominance"), and as early in military operations to seize the initiative as an important means.
China is to improve the information and the security of military operations, the development of electronic and information combat capability, as well as the blockade strategy and deception. China's "information block" tactic possible with all kinds of military and non-military weapons, across all modern combat space (including space) use.
Strategic capability
In recent years, the Chinese in the development of offensive nuclear weapons, space, and network warfare capability to make steady progress - and this is the only Chinese armed forces today is expected to achieve part of globalization. However, little evidence that Chinese military and civilian leaders have adopted fully consider the impact of global and systematic use of these weapons.
● nuclear forces. Chinese in terms of quality and quantity and improve on all the strategic missile forces. At present, China's nuclear arsenal, including about 20 silo launchers of the liquid-fueled CSS-4 intercontinental ballistic missiles; solid propellant road mobile DF-31 and DF-31A intercontinental ballistic missiles (respectively in 2006 and 2007 the deployment); about 20 liquid-fueled, limited range CSS-3 intercontinental ballistic missile; 15-20 liquid-fueled CSS-2 intermediate-range ballistic missiles; road mobile, solid-fueled CSS-5 Medium range ballistic missiles (for regional deterrence purposes) and "Summer" class ballistic missile submarines equipped with the JL-1 submarine-launched ballistic missiles.
By 2010, China's nuclear forces will include the DF-31 and DF-31A, enhanced CSS-4, CSS-3, CSS-5 and "Jin" class ballistic missile submarines (each carrying 12 JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missiles); with the People's Liberation Army nuclear strike capability with the number of units is gradually increasing, the mobility and survivability will greatly improve, coupled with the Chinese are studying the ballistic missile defense measures, such as mobile re-entry vehicles (MaRV), aim multiple independent reentry vehicles (MIRV), decoys, chaff, jamming, thermal shielding, as well as anti-satellite weapons - will enhance China's nuclear deterrent force and its strategic strike capability.
Chinese leadership is facing the decentralization and deployment of Airborne Systems will introduce the Chinese leadership put forward new demands, resulting in new control challenges. Such as the People's Liberation Army carried out at sea with the submarine's ability to communicate is limited, and the Chinese navy on the implementation of strategic ballistic missile submarines on patrol NOT management experience. It is worth mentioning that, the Chinese state media reports, the recent missile force training including training in the following circumstances: the loss of the missile batteries and high-level communications and launch site selection requirements of the commander of the situation. About People's Liberation Army is looking for possible publication on this subject, such training can provide that information.
Introduce more mobile platform to the Chinese leadership's command and control has brought new challenges, they formulate the release and deployment of decision-making when faced with a series of variables required. For example, the PLA is currently only a limited ability to carry out its mandate with the submarine at sea for remote communication; the People's Liberation Army Navy has not managed the implementation of the strategic nuclear submarine fleet patrolling experience. It is worth noting that China's official media reported that the PLA's missile force in recent training includes the following elements: at missile launchers with senior commanders of the loss of communication links, or other extreme cases, commanders need to select other launch sites. This can be for outside research on how to solve this problem the People's Liberation Army to provide a limited understanding and observation.

Reported that a number of Chinese People's Liberation Army is responsible for space projects
Chinese defense white paper in 2008 that the Second Artillery Force: 1) Chinese insist "no first use of nuclear weapons" policy, 2) carry out the self-defensive nuclear strategy, 3) strict enforcement of orders of the Central Military Commission, 4) to ensure the country from external as the basic mission of a nuclear attack. 2008 National Defense White Paper also stated "In the country suffered a nuclear attack, the Second Artillery missile will use nuclear weapons, independent or in conjunction with other branches of the armed forces of nuclear forces to counter attack the enemy in the firm. This means that in addition to the Chinese Navy, the nuclear mission may also be allocated to the Chinese Air Force. People's Republic of China military writings indicate that China's nuclear force in other tasks including the prevention of nuclear resources for China to launch regular attacks or the consequences of Tate's destruction scale conventional attacks, to strengthen China's power status and, through restrictions on other countries the threat of Chinese nuclear deterrent force to increase the scope of Chinese freedom of action.
Chinese nuclear forces, taking into account the various tasks on the Chinese "no first use of nuclear weapons" policy of the applicable conditions remains unclear. Even though the Chinese government has repeatedly claimed that he would not change its "no first use of nuclear weapons" policy, but this policy has also been supported by the People's Liberation Army, but Chinese academics and civil still on "no first use of nuclear weapons" policy is legitimate, whether it should continue to maintained controversy. China's strategic forces by conventional attack, whether Chinese "no first use of nuclear weapons" policy abolished, these arguments make China's nuclear force in the strategic objective of a more ambiguous.
● space and counter space. China's space activities, including anti-satellite weapons program, in the Taiwan Strait and beyond the scope of the implementation of anti-intervention / regional blockade has a significant impact on capacity. Much of the Chinese space program, including manned space station projects and schemes to which the People's Liberation Army is responsible. China believes that the space and counter-space capabilities to enhance the development of a national reputation, just like nuclear weapons, to manifest the power of a big country.
● reconnaissance: China is the deployment of advanced imaging, surveillance and military purposes, the Earth resources system, including remote sensing such as -1,2,3,4 and 5, the Ocean-1B, CBERS-2B satellite -2 and , as well as "environmental" disaster / environmental monitoring satellite system. China is planning to launch eight "environmental" project satellites, they are visible, infrared, multi-spectral and synthetic aperture radar imaging features. In the next 10 years, Beijing will build a powerful spy satellite system, which probably will use commercial satellite imagery to supplement existing coverage.
● Navigation and Timing: The Chinese are seeking a variety of independent satellite navigation possible measures. China's current use of the United States Global Positioning System (GPS), Russia's GLONASS navigation system (GLONASS) and domestic Beidou navigation system is used on the 1st. Beidou-1 system includes three satellites, used for both military and civilian purposes. Beidou 2 system is expected to be at 2011 in lieu of Beidou system put into operation on the 1st, and for years 2015-2020 Beidou begin work on the 2nd / compass navigation system to provide additional global.
● manned space program and lunar exploration program: Following the October 2007 Shenzhou VII section 1 lunar probe - launched Chang'e One, China in September 2008 Shenzhou VII use the successful conduct of the first space walk. China's goal is to set up in 2020 and the realization of manned space station unmanned lunar landing and safe return. Manned space program is probably for the Chinese People's Liberation Army weapons development projects. China on the 7th Rocket and control required for the capacity of the system may be used for ballistic missile development. China during the successful run on the 7th to fly with small satellites (BX-1) into orbit around the orbital module. The purpose of this technology is to monitor space, equipment and failure, can also be used to support the activity counter space.
● Communications: China to commercial satellites, satellite and telecommunications satellite consortium, including satellite television, Internet and telephone communications for regional and international. With the development of related technologies, China has recently started to Venezuela and Nigeria through the export of communications satellites and infrastructure to the international market. April 2008, China launched its first communications satellite relay - on the 1st day chain.
● Small Satellites: Since 2000, China has launched a number of small satellites, including oceanographic research, image and environmental research satellites. China has also set up a small satellite design and production facilities, and is developing weighs less than 100 kg micro-satellite for remote sensing, radar images and satellite networks. Once the news breaks, these developments can help achieve China's satellite force in the rapid remodeling or expansion. But Beijing at the development of small rapid-reaction space rocket appears to stagnate.
● anti-satellite weapons: in January 2007, China successfully conducted using the Chinese meteorological satellite missile test groundwork to verify a direct anti-satellite missile attack at near Earth orbit have the ability to attack satellites. At the outbreak of crisis or conflict, the direct attack anti-satellite systems will serve as the People's Liberation Army space operations are zoned multi-part, to limit or prevent potential adversaries to attack the use of space resources.
China's nuclear arsenal has always been to Beijing to provide inherent anti-satellite capacity. 90 In the late 20th century, Chinese from Ukraine won the ultra-high frequency (UHF)-band satellite communications transmitters interfere with its domestic system, so that ordinary Chinese have the capacity of interference-band satellite communications and global positioning system receiver. In addition to direct offensive anti-satellite weapons (see above), China is planning to develop anti-satellite and other high-tech concept weapons, such as kinetic energy and directed-energy lasers, high power microwave and ion beam, etc.. China to develop manned spacecraft and the lunar landing program, citing the positive development of satellite tracking and identification of capacity - This is one effective and strict implementation of anti-a prerequisite for space warfare.
● information warfare. Chinese military thinkers have written about a lot of information warfare article. For example in November 2006 "Liberation Army Daily" Comment Summary: "[the] institutions in the information under the condition of the war than the enemy of possession advantage for outstanding performance, our ability to use various means to obtain information, and to ensure effective information circulation; Whether or not we can take full advantage of the permeability, shared property rights and information connectivity, implementation of materials, energy and the organic combination of information to form a joint combat effectiveness; [and,] whether we have the ability to implement effective means to weaken the enemy's information to reduce the enemy information advantages and the operational efficiency of equipment. "
Chinese People's Liberation Army is investing in electronic countermeasures, electronic attack defense (such as: electronic and infrared decoys, angle reflectors, and false target generators), and computer network operations (CNO). China's CNO concepts include computer network attack, computer network development (CNE), and computer network defense (CND). Chinese People's Liberation Army has established information warfare units to examine the use of network virus to attack enemy computer systems, development strategies for ways to protect friendly computer systems and networks. In 2005, the Chinese People's Liberation Army begin CNO put into military activities.
Strategic projection capability - modernization beyond the Taiwan Strait
China's continued investment in the development of military projects, designed to enhance a wider range of national strategies projection capability. The development of Chinese military power is now a trend that is changing military balance in East Asia and the People's Liberation Army has the ability to go far beyond the Taiwan Strait, the Asia-Pacific region to carry out military operations. Given the lack of In addition to the Taiwan region from other countries outside of the direct threat to China's current and future military strength will be how to use the still very uncertain. However, these capabilities would enable Beijing in the use of diplomatic means, the increase in military coercive means to advance the interests, or resolve disputes.
Chinese People's Liberation Army, some analysts believe that the expansion of Taiwan in the Chinese maritime "defensive" boundaries and enhance the impact of the capacity of the sea lines of communication have an important geopolitical value. For example: Chinese People's Liberation Army Military Academy article "Strategic Study" (2000) wrote: "If separate Taiwan from China, not only our natural defense system would lose its depth, and opened the gate leading to the external sphere of influence, and will there is a large area of territorial waters and rich marine resources fall into the hands of others ... to our country, opening up and economic development of foreign trade and transport routes, will be subject to the separatists and hostile forces, surveillance and threat, and China will always was locked in the western Pacific in the first island chain. "
If the regional turmoil, with the protection of the power invested in Central Asia and communication requirements of the route will be opened up for military input or provide an opportunity for intervention. Questions about the ownership of the East China Sea dispute with Japan and Southeast Asia with a number of claims in respect of the South China Sea Islands and the Islands of some or all of the islands dispute the ownership of the relationship between these areas have become nervous again. Instability in the Korean Peninsula could lead to regional crises same.
China and Japan crossed the border around the East China Sea, as well as some countries in Southeast Asia around the South China Sea dispute over sovereignty, possible cause of tension in this region. Instability in the Korean peninsula may lead to regional crises same. In addition, the Chinese land-based energy channels in order to guarantee security, but also need to pay attention to regional security dynamics in Central Asia. On the purchase of weapons to China analysis also showed that China's building its own military strength is beyond the eyes of the Taiwan issue. Chinese at different locations such as the deployment of theater missile equipped with a new conventional missile units, can be used to deal with a lot of non-Taiwan-related "emergency" case, and the Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW & C) as well as the introduction of air refueling will be allowed to the People's Liberation Army Expand the scope of air operations into the South China Sea area and further afield.
Advanced destroyers and submarines strength reflects the rapid development of Beijing, or want to break through to reach the second island chain to protect and promote the aspirations of its maritime interests. With the constant introduction of new equipment and better technical and tactical training and closer cooperation in joint operations, the PLA's expeditionary forces (three airborne divisions, two amphibious infantry divisions, two brigades and around the Navy Special Operations Group 7) First step is to develop. Long-term view, China's C4ISR system improvements, including space-based and the use of over-the-horizon sensor will lock and track Beijing's goal of military activities deep into the western Pacific.

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